Key Terms Chemistry Unit 3 - AQA

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  • Created on: 18-05-13 10:14
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KEY TERMS C3:
Acid ­ a sour substance which can attack metal, clothing or skin. It is the chemical which is the opposite of
an alkali. When dissolved in water, its solution has a pH number less than 7. Acids are proton donors
(H+ions).
Activation energy ­ the minimum energy needed to start off a reaction.
Alkane ­ saturated hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH2n+2. Example: methane, ethane and
propane.
Alkene ­Unsaturated hydrocarbon which contains carbon-carbon double bond. Its general formula is
CnH2n. Example: ethene C2H4.
Alloy ­ a mixture of metals (and sometimes non-metals).
Anhydrous ­ describes a substance that does not contain water.
Base ­ the oxide, hydroxide or carbonate of a metal that will react with an acid, forming a salt as one of
the products. (If a base dissolves in water it is called an alkali). Bases are proton (H+ ion) acceptors.
Bond energy ­ the energy needed to break a particular chemical bond.
Chromatography ­ the process whereby small amounts of dissolved substances are separated by
running a solvent along a material such as absorbent paper.
Collision theory ­ An explanation of chemical reactions in terms of reacting particles colliding with
sufficient energy for a reaction to take place.
Delocalised electron ­ Bonding electron that is no longer associated with any one particular atom.
Electrolysis ­ the breakdown of a substance containing ions by electricity.
Electrolyte ­ A liquid, containing free-moving ions, that is broken down by electricity in the process of
electrolysis.
Empirical formula ­ the simplest ratio of elements in a compound.
Endothermic ­ a reaction that takes in energy from the surroundings.
End point ­ the point in a titration where the reaction is complete and titration should stop.
Exothermic - A reaction that gives out energy to the surroundings.

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Fermentation ­ the reaction in which the enzymes in yeast turn glucose into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Fractional Distillation ­ a way to separate liquids from a mixture of liquids by boiling off the substances at
different temperatures, then condensing and collecting the liquids.
Fullerene ­ form of the element carbon that can form a large cage-like structure, based on hexagonal
rings of carbon atoms.…read more

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Oxidation ­ the reaction when oxygen is added to a substance (or when electrons are lost from a
substance)
Permanent Hard Water ­ hard water whose calcium and/or magnesium ions are not removed when the
water is boiled, thus remaining hard.
Reduction ­ a reaction in which oxygen is removed (or electrons are gained).
Retention time ­ the time it takes a component in a mixture to pass through the column during gas
chromatography.…read more

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