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KEY TERMS C3:
Acid a sour substance which can attack metal, clothing or skin. It is the chemical which is the opposite of
an alkali. When dissolved in water, its solution has a pH number less than 7. Acids are proton donors
Activation energy the minimum energy needed to start off a reaction.
Alkane saturated hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH2n+2. Example: methane, ethane and
Alkene Unsaturated hydrocarbon which contains carbon-carbon double bond. Its general formula is
CnH2n. Example: ethene C2H4.
Alloy a mixture of metals (and sometimes non-metals).
Anhydrous describes a substance that does not contain water.
Base the oxide, hydroxide or carbonate of a metal that will react with an acid, forming a salt as one of
the products. (If a base dissolves in water it is called an alkali). Bases are proton (H+ ion) acceptors.
Bond energy the energy needed to break a particular chemical bond.
Chromatography the process whereby small amounts of dissolved substances are separated by
running a solvent along a material such as absorbent paper.
Collision theory An explanation of chemical reactions in terms of reacting particles colliding with
sufficient energy for a reaction to take place.
Delocalised electron Bonding electron that is no longer associated with any one particular atom.
Electrolysis the breakdown of a substance containing ions by electricity.
Electrolyte A liquid, containing free-moving ions, that is broken down by electricity in the process of
Empirical formula the simplest ratio of elements in a compound.
Endothermic a reaction that takes in energy from the surroundings.
End point the point in a titration where the reaction is complete and titration should stop.
Exothermic - A reaction that gives out energy to the surroundings.
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Fermentation the reaction in which the enzymes in yeast turn glucose into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Fractional Distillation a way to separate liquids from a mixture of liquids by boiling off the substances at
different temperatures, then condensing and collecting the liquids.
Fullerene form of the element carbon that can form a large cage-like structure, based on hexagonal
rings of carbon atoms.…read more
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Oxidation the reaction when oxygen is added to a substance (or when electrons are lost from a
Permanent Hard Water hard water whose calcium and/or magnesium ions are not removed when the
water is boiled, thus remaining hard.
Reduction a reaction in which oxygen is removed (or electrons are gained).
Retention time the time it takes a component in a mixture to pass through the column during gas