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Chemistry AQA C3
The early periodic table
Newlands periodic table
Law of octaves ­ noticed that every 8th element had similar properties
Mendeleev's table

Group 1 ­ Alkali metals
Low density
React with non-metals to form ionic compounds
React with water to produce hydrogen and hydroxide alkali solutions
The further…

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This is because
If the outer electron is further away from the nucleus than there is a weaker attraction to the
Also there is MORE screening /shielding by inner electrons, so electron is easily lost.
Softening hard water
1 Add `washing soda'
Calcium ions + Carbonate ions Calcium carbonate…

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1Relative mole mass = 40g ­ placed it into 1000cm3 of water and have made a 1 mole per dm cubed
of NaOH
Put 40g in 5000cm of water
What is the concentration in moles/dm3
80g in 1000cm so 2moles/dm3
What is the mass of sodium hydroxide is there in…

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Contain the functional group ­O-H
A homologous series
Methanol ­ CH3OH

Ethanol- CH3CH2OH

Propanol CH3CH2CH2OH

Key points
Dissolve in water to form a neutral solution
React with sodium to produce hydrogen
Burn in air ­ produces carbon dioxide and water
Ethanol can be oxidised to…

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Carbxylic acids

Methanoic acid - HCOOH

Ethanoic acid CH3COOH

Propanoic acid CH3CH2COOH

Key features
Dissolve in water to produce acidic solutions
React with carbonates to produce carbon dioxide
React with alcohols and acid catalyst to make esters.

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Don't ionise completely in water ­ weak acids
Aqueous solutions of carboxylic acids have a higher PH than aqueous solutions of strong acids
with the same concentration. ­ This is because the ionising in water of carboxylic acids is
revisable and therefore will be at equilibrium. ­ therefore will have…

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Equilibrium- Reactions occur at the same rate in each direction.
Explanation for conditions
The yield of ammonia is only around 15
Ammonia is being produced at the same rate as hydrogen and nitrogen but want to encourage
forwarding reaction more to produce more ammonia
High pressure ­ Increase in pressure…

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Yellow ­ Sodium plus
Lilac ­potassium plus
Brick red ­ calcium 2 plus
Green- barium 2plus
Sodium Hydroxide
White precipitate-
Aluminium ­ if you add excess the precipitate dissolves
Need a flame test to differentiate between the two.
Coloured precipitate
Iron III ­ brown
Iron II ­ green…

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This produces gasses which contribute to pollution
2 ways to use it
Combustion engine
Fuel cell ­ chemical reaction ­ produces electricity heat and water ­ the electricity is used to
power the car.


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