AQA Chemistry Specification

All the main points of the specification typed out (for the Higher Tier). Repeating the specification correctly wil get you a B

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Chemistry Specification

C1.1. The Fundamental Ideas in Chemistry
Atoms and elements are the building blocks of chemistry. Atoms contain protons, neutrons and
electrons. When elements react
they produce compounds .

C1.1.1. Atoms
All substances are made of atoms . A substance that is made of only one sort of…

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No atoms are lost or made during a chemical reaction so the mass of the products equals the
mass of the reactants.

C1.2. Limestone and Building Materials
Rocks provide essential building materials. Limestoneis a naturally occurring resourcethat
provides a starting point for the manufacture of cement and concrete .


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New ways of extracting copper from low-grade ores are being researched to limit the
environmental impact
of traditional mining. Copper can be extracted by phytomining , or by
bioleaching .
Phytomining is when some plants absorb copper compounds through their roots. They
concentrate these compounds as a result of this.…

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A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together .
The chemical properties of each substance in the mixture are unchanged . It is possible to
separate the substances in a mixture by physical methods including distillation .
Most of the compounds in crude oil…

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mixed with steam and heated to a very high temperature so that thermal decomposition
reactions then occur.
The products of cracking include alkanes and unsaturated hydrocarbons
called alkenes. Alkenes
have the general formula CnH2n.
Unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules can be represented in the following forms:
I I…

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Vegetable oils are important foods and fuels as they provide a lot of energy . They also provide us
with nutrients .
Vegetable oils have higher boiling points than water and so can be used to cook foods at higher
temperatures than by boiling. This produces quicker cooking and different…

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Small proportions
of various other gases, including carbon dioxide ,water vapour and noble
gases .
During the first billion years of the Earth's existence there was intense volcanic activity . This
activity released the gases that formed the early atmosphere and water vapour that condensed
to form the oceans .…

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C2.1.1. Structure and Bonding
Compounds are substances in which atoms of two or more elements are chemically combined .
Chemical bonding involves either transferring or sharing electrons in the highest occupied energy
levels (shells) of atoms in order to achieve the electronic structure of a noble gas (full outer

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Substances that consist of simple moleculesdo not conduct electricitybecause the moleculesdo
not have an overall electric charge.

C2.2.2. Ionic Compounds
Ionic compounds have regular structures (giant ionic lattices) in which there are strong
electrostatic forces in all directions between oppositely charged ions . These compounds have
high melting points and…

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When heated, the atoms in thermosoftening polymers vibrate more, so they move away from
each other, making the intermolecular forces are weaker. The polymer can stretch and become

C2.2.6. Nanoscience
Nanoscience refers to structures that are 1­100 nm in size, of the order of a few hundred atoms .…


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