AQA Chemistry C2 Full Notes

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  • Created on: 18-05-13 14:48
Preview of AQA Chemistry C2 Full Notes

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C2 Chemistry - Key Words Key Ideas Definitions
Bonding
Compound - two or more elements chemically combined
Noble Gas - Full outer shell
Giant Ionic structure
Lattice structure
Electrostatic forces of attraction between ions
Group 0 - full outer shell (unreactive)
Group 7 - form ions with -1 charge
Group 1 - form ions with +1 charge
Magnesium Oxide
Mg2+ (Loses 2 electrons)
O2- (Gains 2 electrons)
Calcium Chloride
Ca2+ (Loses 2 electrons)
2Cl1- (Each gains 1 electron)
Isotopes
Same element with a different number of neutrons
Therefore, the atomic number identifies the element,
and the atomic mass number can vary
Metallic Bonding
Delocalised Electrons - Free to move around
Atoms --> Positive Ions (as t
hey have lost the negatively charged delocalised electrons)
They have strong electrostatic attraction
Conduct electricity and heat
Simple Molecules
Strong covalent bonds
Weak intermolecular forces

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C2 Chemistry - Key Words Key Ideas Definitions
Boiling requires forces of energy to break the weak intermolecular forces NOT the
strong covalent bonds.
This means simple molecules have a low boiling point
Ionic Compounds
Giant ionic lattice
Strong electrostatic forces
High melting points
High boiling points
Conduct electricity as a liquid because they are free to move
e.g.…read more

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C2 Chemistry - Key Words Key Ideas Definitions
Arranged in branches (separated
)
Soft
Made in a different way to HD polymers
High density polymer
Hard
High melting point
Thermosoftening
Softens/melts when heated
Good for recycling
Thermosetting
Strong covalent bonds between polymer chains
Cannot change the shape
Mass
Relative Atomic Mass (Ar)
Relative Formula Mass (Mr)
Relative Molecular Mass (Mr)
H20…read more

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C2 Chemistry - Key Words Key Ideas Definitions
Ar of hydrogen = 1
Ar of oxygen = 16
Mr = 1 + 1 + 16
= 18
Paper chromatography
Strip of paper, pencil line, drop of substance, dip into beaker containing solvent, put on a
lid (prevent evaporation), substance does not touch solvent, colours will separate out
Compare with known samples
Gas Chromatography
1. Sample vaporised and passed through column
2. The chemicals are carried through the column at different speeds - they separate
3.…read more

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C2 Chemistry - Key Words Key Ideas Definitions
C2H4
But the empirical formula is
CH2
Percentage Yields
The amount of something you get, compared to what you expect to get
Some may be lost when separated from another mixture
Reaction might be reversible
May react in ways that are different from how you expect
Amount produced
% yield = _____________________ X 100
Maximum amount possible
Rates of reaction
Amount of reactant used
Rate of reaction = ____________________
Time
Amount of product formed
Rate of reaction…read more

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C2 Chemistry - Key Words Key Ideas Definitions
Endothermic reaction
Takes in energy from the surroundings (gets cold)
e.g.…read more

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C2 Chemistry - Key Words Key Ideas Definitions
Negative ions attracted to Anode and lose electrons (o
xidation)
OILRIG - Oxidation Is Loss Reduction Is Gain
Half Equations e.g.…read more

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C2 Chemistry - Key Words Key Ideas Definitions…read more

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