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C3 1.1 The Early Periodic
Table
· The periodic table of elements developed as chemists
tried to classify the elements. It arranges them in a
pattern in which similar elements are grouped together
· Newlands' table put the elements in order of atomic mass
but failed to take account of elements that were unknown
at that time.
· Mendeleev's periodic table left gaps for the unknown
elements, and so provided the basis for the modern
periodic table.…read more

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C3 1.2 The Modern
Periodic Table
· We can explain trends in reactivity as we go down a group in terms of:
· The distance between the outermost electrons and the nucleus
· The number of occupied inner shells (energy levels) in the atoms
· Group 1: Reactivity INCREASES going down the group ­ as the atoms get bigger
the single electron in the outermost shell is attracted less strongly to the positive
nucleus. This is because it is further away from the nucleus, and the inner shells of
electrons shield it from the positive charge on the nucleus. The outer electron is
easier to lose, so elements lower down Group 1 are MORE reactive.
· Group 7: Reactivity DECREASES going down the group ­ as the atoms get bigger
an electron added to the outermost shell is attracted less trongly to the positive
nucleus. This is because it is further away from the nucleus, and the inner shells of
electrons shield it from the positive charge on the nucleus. An extra electron is
less easily attracted into the outer shell, so elements lower down Group 7 are
LESS reactive.…read more

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C3 1.3 Group 1 ­ The
Alkali Metals
· The elements in group 1 of the periodic table are called the
alkali metals. They are very reactive, have a low density, are
soft.
· Their melting points and boiling points decrease going down
the group.
· The metals all react with water to produce hydrogen and an
alkaline solution containing the metal hydroxide.
· They form 1+ ions in reactions to make ionic compounds. These
are generally white and dissolve in water, giving colorless
solutions.
· The reactivity of the alkali metals increases going down the
group.…read more

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C3 1.4 The Transition
Elements
· Transition metals are good conductors of electricity and
energy, are hard and strong, have high densities, have
high melting points (except mercury), much less reactive
than alkali metals.
· The transition metals don't react vigorously with oxygen
or water.
· A transition element can form ions with different charges,
in compounds that are often colored.
· Transition elements and their compounds are important
industrial catalysts.…read more

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C3 1.5 Group 7 ­ The
Halogens
· The halogens have low melting and boiling points and are
poor conductors of energy and electricity.
· The halogens form covalent compounds by sharing
electrons with other non-metals.
· A more reactive halogen can displace a less reactive
halogen from a solution of one of its salts.
· The reactivity of the halogens decreases going down the
group.…read more

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Comments

H.M-

Thanks this is amazing revision resource, it has all the obligatory information. xD

H.M-

an*

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