Italy - Impact of WW1 prior to Fiume

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Mutilated victory
Thought they deserved more from PPC due to war efforts
Treaty of London ­ secret
Demands `excessive'
= Contradicted
St Germain Treaty ­ 14 points
Open diplomacy
Autonomy Austria-Hungary
Borders amended on nationalist lines
Demands Result
Port of flume ­ nationalist demand ­ not Wilson: `infringed self-determination'
in ToL
South Tyrol, Trentino, Istria, some of
Dalmatia Flume and Dalmatia Yugoslavia
all promised in ToL
Colonies in Turkey & Germany Colonies denied
Italian reaction
Demands denied ­ `entente selfishness'
Italy gov ­ abandoned nationalist interests
Lib dem failed ­ expansionism
Soldiers angry
Conservative ­ scared of socialism
Really mutilated?
Britain + France sacrificed more people and resources
Aided Italy with troops 1917
+ Orlando no match for Lloyd and Clemenceau
Most against it
No national interest
Catholics ­ neutral
Socialist ­ pacifist
o Expand sphere of influence by beating Central powers
Salandra aim: short war and win support

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War & democracy
Salandra ­ ruled by decree
o Eroded Parliament power
Rarely allowed Parliament to meet
= Minimise public criticism
Military leaders powerful ­ gov prioritised their requirements
Confidence lost in democracy
o Parliament `failed to stop war'
Splits over enter or neutral and constitute or stop
PPC ­ discredited liberals
Created more pressure for democratic reform
Compensational reforms ­ radical
November 1919
Universal male suffrage
Party list
= Undermined liberal and elite power
Mass political parties powerful
Liberal ­ lacked cohesion, discipline…read more

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Arms and Munitions'
i.e.…read more

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Poor reaction
Land hunger
= Starting seizing land 1918
War economy prioritised military produce over food
= food shortages
New workers laws = long hours
Workers tried in military courts
Denounced business for profiting from war
gov indirect taxation
= Angered poor + socialists e.g.…read more


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