Neutralists vs interventionists
- Giolitti and like minded liberalists.
- -felt Italy was militarily unprepared for war.
- -German government held secret meetings with Giolitti to keep Italy neutral, offering territory from Austro-Hungarian empire.
- -liberal government supported neutral stance and believed war had nothing to do with Italy.
- socialists- condemend war as capitalist
- (Nationalists,syndicists,republicans and anarchists)
- war might lead to territorial gains - italia irredentia
- treaty of london 1915 promised land in line with italian requests
- establish italy as great power and create italian empire
- syndicitst,republicans and anarchists believed war would create circumstances favourable to revoloution and destroy monarchy and capitalism.
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military and economic effects of WW1
- massive casualties- death of 600,000 italians
- conscription of 5 million men- weak army.
- government blamed for mishandling war effort- general Cadorna used inefective tactics and blamed failings on weak government.
- disaster of caparetto- huge humiliation and weakened credibility of liberal government.- caused replacment of General cardona and the governemtns promise of social reform post war.
- however, army experienced sucess with victory of Vittorio Veneto.
- low governement spending, army was ill-equipped, moral was extremely low, harsh weather conditions resulted in poor military effort.
- government spent 148 billion lire to finance war- resulted increasing national debt 16 billion lire in 1914-- 85 billion lire in 1919
- inflation rose sharply.
- some industry such as fiat and pirelli had massive expansion due to wartime production.
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political and social effects of WW1
- socialists nor cathloics took part in government, liberals divided over conduct of war.
- majority of chamber of deputies held neutral stance.
- giolitti was politically isolated due to neutral stance.
- wartime governments where weak and failed to rally national enthusiams for war.
- added to italian dissolousion in political system.
- nationalists viewed peace treaty as "mutilated victory".
- italy gained Trentino,South Tyrol and Istria and claims for Italian Irredentia where met
- however there was anger as italy didnt gain Dalmatia and Fiume.
- war caused discontent due to 50 killed at turin riots in summer 1917- food shortages
- return of soldiers caused land redistribution
- role of women who where working during the war was returned to normal- created anger
- purchasing power of wages fell by 25% between 1915-1918
- growing resentment of urban workforce due to working conditions and inflation
- growing membership of socialist party and trade unions
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disappointments of Paris Peace Settlement
failure to meet promises of treaty of london
- Italians felt cheated due to not recieving Adriatic part of Fiume.
- loss of Fiume had great impact and resonated with the Italian people.
- led to D'Annunzio's take over of Fiume 1919 and inspired Mussolini to form first fascist government to challenge liberal government.
- didn't recieve Dalmatia
orlandos lack of success
- walked out of discussions which made italy look weak.
- criticised by many italians - inability of italy to acquire Fiume
unpopularity of war
- amount of casualties and little gain in territory
- 600,000 deaths and returning soldiers experienced horrible conditions
italian people seen Paris Peace Settlement as "mutilated victory"
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Reasons not to be disappointed with P.P.S.
- italy made more territorial gains than any other victorious nations.
- terms of paris peace settlement where largly in line with treaty of london.
- South Tyrol
- 200,000 german speaking austrians
- little justification to be disappointed with paris peace settlement.
- nationalists had exaggerated italian success in war and Orlando made mistake of emanding more from allied leaders
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