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Within Groups
There are more than 26,000 prisoner on
prisoner assaults within US prisons and 83
deaths per year.…read more

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Importation model
Irwin and Casey- prisoners bring own social histories into
prison with them, prisoners are not blank slates when they
enter and their social pasts made lead to trouble.
Haner + Steffensmeer found higher violence among black
inmates and higher drug and alcohol abuse in white inmates
which reflect racial differences in the USA. What you are like
inside is the way you're going to be outside.
Deterministic- stating what you are like outside of jails is how
you are going to behave in jail.
Reductionist- only based on your past.…read more

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Deprivation Model
Stresses situational factors for violence within prisons. Aggression
is result of the stressful situations of the institution. i.e. uncomfort,
isolation, boredom, loss of sex life, loneliness etc.
McCorkle- claimed that overcrowding and lack of meaningful activity
influences peer violence.
Nyman et al- refuted the deprivation model when they found that
increased personal space on psychiatric institutions failed to
decrease level of violence...however this may be due to nature of
illness patients may be institutionalised because they are violent.
Psychiatric violence different to prison violence and best explained
by importation model.
Environmental determinist- as the behaviour is determined by the
Omits past and genes- reductionist explanation.…read more

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Initiation rituals required for new members of the group.
Used to create a common bond as everyone would have had that
Promotes the transition between child to "man" see if you are "man
enough" to join the group...masculine pride, only 3/60 deaths associated
with hazing have been women
Checks whether you can cope with the rest of the programme...may
have an evolutionary benefit?
Establishes dominance as dominating the weak preserves status.
Problem in defining "aggressive" behaviour 1 out of 5 college students
said they had experienced hazing using researchers definition however
only 1 out of 20 regarded it as hazing.…read more

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Between Groups
Holocaust during WW2, 6 million Jews killed
Rwandan genocide 800,000 Tutsis killed.
Perhaps has an evolutionary benefit.…read more

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