IGCSE Oxygen and Oxide Notes

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Oxygen and Oxides
Composition of Air
- Nitrogen 78.1%
- Oxygen 21%
- Argon 0.9%
- Carbon Dioxide 0.04%
Oxides
Metals + Oxygen = Metal Oxide
Magnesium + Oxygen = Magnesium Oxide
2Mg + O2 = 2MgO
Nonmetal + Oxide = Nonmetal Oxide
Carbon + Oxygen = Carbon Dioxide
C + O2 = CO2
Metal Oxide
Most metal oxides are not very soluble
If a metal oxides does dissolve, it will form an alkaline solution
E.g. Magnesium Oxide: MgO(s) + H2O(s) = Mg(OH)2(s+aq)
NonMetal Oxides
Most nonmetal oxides will dissolve to form an acidic solution. E.g. sulphur dioxide:
SO2 (g) + H2O (l) = H2SO3 (aq)
Some nonmetal oxide such as hydrogen oxide (water) and carbon monoxide from a
neutral solution
Thermal Decomposition
Metal Carbonate = Metal Oxide + Carbon Dioxide
Zinc Carbonate = Zinc Oxide + Carbon Dioxide
ZnCO3 = ZnO + CO2
Metal and Acids
Hydrochloric Acid + Metal = Metal Chloride + Hydrogen
Hydrochloric Acid + Magnesium = Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen
2HCl + Mg = MgCl2 + H2
Sulphuric Acid + Metal = Metal Sulphate + Hydrogen
Sulphuric Acid + Magnesium = Magnesium Sulphate + Hydrogen
H2SO4 + Mg = MgSO4 + H2
Nitric Acid + Metal = Metal Nitrate + Hydrogen
Nitric Acid + Magnesium = Magnesium Nitrate + Hydrogen
2HNO3 + Mg = Mg (NO3)2 + H2
Combustion of Hydrogen
Hydrogen + Oxygen (+ heat) = Water
2H2 + O2 (+ heat) = 2H2O
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Testing for Water
Anhydrous Copper Sulfate + Water = Hydrated Copper Sulfate
(White Powder) (Blue Crystals)
CuSO4 (s) + 5H2O = CuSO4 . 5H2O (s)
Anhydrous Cobalt Chloride Paper + Water = Hydrates Cobalt Chloride Paper
(Blue Paper) (Pink Paper)
Testing Purity of Water
Anhydrous Copper Sulfate and Anhydrous Cobalt Chloride Paper only test whether
water is present, but not the purity of it.…read more

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