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States of Matter
As heat is added to a solid the particles start to vibrate more and more vigorously. Eventually when it
reaches its melting point the particles have enough energy to break their bonds and melt into a
liquid. As it is cooled energy is taken away so the particles vibrate less and if a liquid or gas the bonds
become stronger and so it freezes or condenses. In the case of a solid it becomes less flexible.…read more

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Held on energy levels
First level can only hold 2 electrons
After the first the rest of the energy levels can hold 8
Electrons heavily influence the chemical properties of an element
Electrolytes are substances that conduct electricity when molten or in solution (ionic)
An atom with the same number of protons but a different of neutrons
Relative Isotopic Masses
E.g 75% of Cl is 35 type. 25% is Cl 37
(0.75x35) + (0.25x37) = 35.…read more

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Gas Tests:
Hydrogen ­ Lit splint gives a squeaky `pop'
Carbon Dioxide ­ Turns Limewater cloudy
Oxygen ­ Re-lights a glowing splint
Ammonia ­ Turns red litmus blue (Smells distinctively)
Chlorine ­ Green gas bleaches blue damp litmus
Anhydrous copper sulphate goes from white to blue
Cobalt Chloride goes from pink to blue
Flame (Cations) Tests:
Sodium ­ Golden Yellow
Lithium ­ Crimson Red
Calcium ­ Brick Red
Potassium ­ Lilac
Sodium Hydroxide (Cations) Test:
Aluminium ­ White ­ CLEAR IN EXCESS
Copper ­…read more

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Hydrochloric Acid ­ Chloride
Sulphuric Acid ­ Sulphate
Nitric Acid ­ Nitrate
Phosphoric Acid ­ Phosphate
Acid + Metal = Salt + Hydrogen
Acid + Base = Salt + Water
Acid + Carbonate = Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
Strength of Acids ­ A strong acid totally dissociates to form H+ ions e.…read more

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There are 3 types of bonding: ionic, covalent and metallic.
An ionic bond is the electrostatic force of attraction that occurs between two ions.
It's strength depends on the charges on ions
High melting and boiling points
Soluble in water
Conduct electricity when in solution or molten
Between a metal and non-metal
A covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons between the nuclei of two atoms.…read more

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The electrostatic force of attraction between the lattice of ions and delocalised sea of
Regular arrangement (lattice) of ions
Surrounded by a delocalised sea of electrons.
Conduct electricity and heat because of mobile electrons
Malleable because layers of ions can slide over each other
Between 2 or more metals
Strength depends on the metal ion and the amount of electrons in the delocalised sea.…read more

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The number of outer electrons on the outer energy level is determined by what group the
element is in and therefore what its ion is. E.g Na = Na Mg = Mg²
The number of energy levels is determined by what period E.g Mg is in period 3 and its
electronic configuration is 2.8.…read more

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Despite extra protons on elements lower down the group the further you go from the
nucleus with more energy levels it becomes harder to attract and extra electron.…read more

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Determine the ratio between compounds and alter accordingly
3. Use this to figure out desired value
Empirical Formula Calculations
There are 4 steps to figuring out the empirical formula of any compound when you are given the
masses or percentage of the different elements within it:
1. Lay out calculation correctly. Arrange the elements into columns and put the information you
have been given underneath each element.
2. Divide by Relative Atomic Mass
3. Look at these numbers and divide by the smallest
4.…read more





If I were to literally revise the whole document would i be well prepared for the exam?


thanks a lot

very helpful


neat, colourful and nicely written. great for revision. what more would you want?


thankyou so much **


thanks for the support


Wow! These notes are amazing! Thanks! :) Is this for double or triple award?


Good stuff!

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