IGCSE Chemistry paper 2

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  • CHEMISTRY paper 2
    • Ethanol
      • ethanol can be produced from ETHENE and STEAM
        • ETHENE is produced from crude oil by cracking
        • conditions: 300C,pressure of 60-70 atm, Phosphoric acid used as a catalyst
      • advantages; cheap process because ethane's fairly cheap and not much of it is wasted
      • DISADVANTAGE; crude oil is a non-renewable
      • Can be DEHYDRATED to form ETHENE
        • ethanol vapour is passed over a hot CATALYST of ALUMINIUM OXIDE
      • FERMENTATION;
        • the converting of glucose into ethanol using yeast
        • CONDITIONS: 30C(temperature)
        • ADVANTAGES: the raw materials (sugar and yeast) are all renewable resources.
        • DISADVANTAGES: the ethanol created isn't very concentrated, so it needs to be distilled to increase its strength
    • Electrolysis
      • ANIONS are negatively charged (non-metals) these go towards the ANODE
      • the substance which is split up using electrolysis is know as ELECTROYTE
        • this is a molten or aqueous solution
        • for this liquid to be able to conduct electricity it MUST...
          • have ions that are FREE to move around
      • cations are positively charged (metals and Hydrogen) these go to the CATHODE
      • Positive Anode Negative Is Cathode
        • OPPOSITES ATTRACT
        • At the CATHODE: if the solute contains ons of a metal high in the reactivity series or hydrogen ions from an acid, then HYDROGEN will be liberated
          • if the ions of a metal low in the reactivity series then he METAL will be liberated
        • At the ANODE: if the solute is concentrated solution of a chloride the CHLORINE will be liberated.(also applies to bromides, iodides)
          • if the solute is a dilute solution of chloride, then OXYGEN will be liberated
      • CRYOLITE- is a molten salt that lowers the temperature (& costs)
      • if you INCREASE the number of electrons, you INCREASE the number of electrons. this can be achieved by: electrolysing for a longer time, increasing the current
    • condensation Polymerisation
      • usually involves two different monomers.
      • monomers react together and bonds form between them, making polymer chains.
      • for each new bond that forms, a small molecule is LOST
    • the Contact Process
      • the making of sulphuric acid
      • sulphur + oxygen = sulphur dioxide
        • sulphur dioxide + oxygen = sulfurtrioxide
          • sulphur trioxide + sulphuric acid = oleum
            • oleum + water = concentrated sulphuric acid
      • CONDITIONS; 450C, 2 atm, vanadium oxide (catalyst)

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