IGCSE Edexcel Chemistry Vocab

  • Created by: Amy Hao
  • Created on: 29-04-13 05:50
acid
a substance that produces H+ ions when dissolved in water
1 of 87
acid-alkali indicator
a substance used to show if a solution is acidic or alkaline. It will have a different color in each type of solution
2 of 87
acidic solution
a solution that has a pH<7
3 of 87
acid rain
rain that has a pH <5, produced when gases such as sulfur dioxide dissolved in rainwater
4 of 87
activation energy
The minimum energy required by colliding particles for reaction to occur
5 of 87
alkali
a base that dissolves in water to form OH- ions
6 of 87
alkaline solution
a solution that has a pH <7
7 of 87
alkane
a saturated hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH2n+2
8 of 87
alkene
an unsaturated hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH2n
9 of 87
anion
a negatively charged ion
10 of 87
atom
the smallest particle of an element that can take part in a chemical reaction
11 of 87
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
12 of 87
base
a substance that neutralises an acid to form a salt
13 of 87
bauxite
the main ore of aluminium, from which aluminium is extracted
14 of 87
brine
a concentrated solution of sodium chloride in water
15 of 87
catalyst
a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction but which is chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction
16 of 87
cation
a negatively charged ion
17 of 87
combustion
a chemical reaction involving burning
18 of 87
compound
a substance made up of 2 or more elements chemically combined together
19 of 87
contact process
the name of the industrial process used to make sulphuric acid
20 of 87
corrosion
a chemical reaction between a metal and oxygen in air
21 of 87
covalent bond
the force of attraction between the nuclei of 2 atoms and a pair of electrons shared between them
22 of 87
cracking (catalytic)
the process of breaking lon-chained alkenes into short-chained alkanes and alkenes
23 of 87
crude oil
a naturally occurring mixture of many hydrocarbons
24 of 87
cryolite
a mineral of aluminium used in its molten form for dissolving aluminium oxide in the electrolytic manufacture of aluminium
25 of 87
decomposition
breaking down a compound into simpler substances (elements/compounds)
26 of 87
diffusion
the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to one of lower concentration
27 of 87
displacement reaction
a reaction in which a substance replaces another
28 of 87
distillation
the process of separating a liquid from a solution of a solid in the liquid
29 of 87
dynamic equilibrium
the condition that exists when the rate of the forward and backward reactions in a reversible reaction are equal
30 of 87
electrode
a solid electrical condutor that forms the connection between the electrolyte and the external electrical circuit in electrolysis
31 of 87
electrolysis
the decomposition of a substance by passing an electric current through it
32 of 87
electronic configuration
the way that the electrons are arranged into shells in an atom
33 of 87
electron
a negatively charged sub-atomic particle
34 of 87
element
a substance made up of atoms that all contain the same number of protons
35 of 87
empirical formula
the simplest whole-number ratio of atoms present in a compound
36 of 87
endothermic reaction
a reaction that takes in heat energy
37 of 87
exothermic reaction
a reaction that gives out heat energy
38 of 87
faraday constant
the quantity of electric charge carried by one mole of electrons
39 of 87
fermentation
the conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide
40 of 87
flame test
a method of identifying a metal cation by the color it produces in a non-luminous Bunsen flame
41 of 87
fraction
a mixture of containing several compounds all of which have similar boiling points
42 of 87
fractional distillation
the process of separating the liquids in a mixture of miscible liquids, using the fact that the liquids have different boiling points
43 of 87
Haber process
the name of the industrial process used for making ammonia
44 of 87
halogen
an element in group 7 of the periodic table
45 of 87
homologous series
a group of organic compounds in which each member differs from the next member by a -CH2- unit
46 of 87
hydrocarbon
a compound made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only
47 of 87
ion
an electrically charged atom or group of atoms
48 of 87
ionic bond
the force of attraction between oppositely charged ions in a compound
49 of 87
isomers
compounds that have same molecular formula but different displayed formula
50 of 87
isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different masses (same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons)
51 of 87
litmus
the most common acid-alkaline indicator. It is red in acidic solution and blue in alkaline solution
52 of 87
mass number
the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
53 of 87
metallic bond
the force of attraction between the positive metal ions and the delocalised electrons in a metal
54 of 87
mixture
a combination of 2 or more substances that are not chemically joined together
55 of 87
molar enthalpy change
the net heat energy change per mole in a chemical reaction
56 of 87
molar volume
tone mole of a gas at r.t.p. is 24 dm3
57 of 87
mole
the amount of substance containing 6x10^23 particles of a substance
58 of 87
molecular formula
the exact number of atoms of each element present in a molecule of a substance
59 of 87
molecule
the smallest particle of a substance that can have a separate, independent existance
60 of 87
monomer
the unit molecule from which a polymer is made
61 of 87
neutralisation
the reaction between an acid and a base to produce a salt
62 of 87
neutral solution
a solution that has a pH of 7
63 of 87
neutron
a neutral sub-atomic article present in the nucleus of atoms
64 of 87
ore
a mineral that contains enough of a metal or a metal compound to make it worthwhile extracting the metal
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oxidation
the removal of electrons from a substance or the addition of oxygen
66 of 87
oxidising agent (think backwards)
a substance that is capable of oxidising another substance (itself reduces)
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Periodic Table
a table in which the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number. Elements with similar properties appear in the same groups
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polymer
a long-chained molecule made up of repeating units of monomers
69 of 87
precipitate
an insoluble solid formed from a reaction taking place in an aqueous solution
70 of 87
proton
a positively charged sub-atomic particle found int he nucleus of atoms
71 of 87
reaction rate
a measure in change in concentration of a reactant with time. The greater the change the faster the reaction
72 of 87
redox reaction
a reaction in which both reduction and oxidation are taking place
73 of 87
reducing agent ;)
a substance that is capable of reducing another substance (itself oxidises)
74 of 87
reduction
the addition of electrons to a substance, or the removal of oxygen
75 of 87
relative atomic mass (Ar)
the weighted mean mass of an atom of an element relative to one twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12
76 of 87
relative formula mass (Mr)
the sum of the relative atomic masses of all the atoms present in the formula of a substance
77 of 87
reversible reaction
a reaction that can take place in both directions (remember the symbol!!)
78 of 87
rusting
a chemical reaction between iron and oxygen and water from air in which rust is formed
79 of 87
salt
a substance formed when the hydrogen ions in an acid are replaced by either metal ions or ammonium ions
80 of 87
saturated hydrocarbons
a hydrocarbon containing only single bonds
81 of 87
****
the waste material produced in the blast furnace during the production of iron
82 of 87
theoretical yield
the maximum amount of a product that could be formed from a given amount of a reactant
83 of 87
thermal dcomposition
breaking down by using heat
84 of 87
titration
a method to determine the exact volume of one solution that will react with a given volume of another solution
85 of 87
unsaturated hydrocarbons
a hydrocarbon containing a carbon-carbon double bond
86 of 87
yield
the amount of product obtained in a chemical reaction-expressed in a percentage of the max possible amount of product that can be made from a given amount of reactant
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

acid-alkali indicator

Back

a substance used to show if a solution is acidic or alkaline. It will have a different color in each type of solution

Card 3

Front

acidic solution

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

acid rain

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

activation energy

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

Celia

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this is so helpful, thanks! :)

matina_212

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thank you so much this will help me achieve a higher grade

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