Chemistry IGCSE Higher Iron Extraction

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Stage One

Charge (made up of hematite - iron ore, limestone and coke)


Forming Carbon Dioxide

carbon + oxygen -> carbon dioxide

C(s) + O2 (g) -> CO2 (g)

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Stage Two

Coke (coal)

Reacts with the carbon dioxide

Creating carbon monoxide

 - The energy from the reaction comes from the furnace heat

carbon + carbon dioxide -> carbon monoxide

C(s) + CO2 (g) -> 2CO(g)

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Stage Three


Reacts with carbon monoxide (a reducing agent)

To form liquid iron

carbon + oxygen -> carbon dioxide

Fe2O3 (s) + 3CO(g) -> 2Fe(l) + 3CO2 (g)

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Stage Four


Breaks down to calcium oxide

Which reacts with sand

To form calcium silicate

limestone -> calcium oxide + carbon dioxide

CaCO3(s)  -> CaO (s) + CO2 (g)

calcium oxide + silica -> calcium silicate

CO(s) + SiO2 (s) -> CaSiO3 (s)

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Stage Five

Waste gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen

Rise to the top and heat incoming air

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