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Annii Hart




Biology Summary Sheet
Respiration, lungs and breathing, smoking, and the circulatory system.

Respiration and Breathing
Energy Content per gram of food (J) = 4.2 x temp. Rise x 20/ mass of food

Respiration
There are two types of respiration
Aerobic Respiration
Anaerobic Respiration
Aerobic Respiration takes place in…

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Gas Exchange in the Alveoli
Gas Inhaled (%) Exhaled (%)

Nitrogen 78 79

Oxygen 21 16

Carbon Dioxide 0.04 4

Other (Mainly Argon) 1 1


The lungs absorb the oxygen into the blood, and remove the carbon dioxide from it, in the
alveoli.
To make this efficient, the…

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Nasal Cavity Cleans, warms, and moistens the air you breathe.
Bronchus Carries the air to the bronchioles.
Pleural Membranes Stops the lungs from collapsing.
Heart Pumps blood around the body.
Alveoli Gets the oxygen into and carbon dioxide out of, the blood.
Ribs Protects the lungs.
Lungs Contains…

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- 3 x more likely to die within a week
- Malnutrition from poor milk production
- Lower oxygen levels in the blood
- Higher infant mortality rate
- Less immunity to flu and diarrhoea
- More likely to become smokers when older.
Problems for the mother include…

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HepaticPortal Vein Carries blood with lots of glucose.
Renal Vein Blood that is low in urea from the kidneys to the heart
Brain Responsible for memory
Vena Cava Carries deoxygenated blood to the heart
Hepatic Artery Carries blood to the liver from the heart
Aorta Main artery of…

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Capillary
Single cell thick wall as narrow as a red blood vessel.
Oxygen and glucose leave through diffusion
Carbon dioxide enters through diffusion
Only works because the distance between the capillaries and cells are tiny.
Capillaries are always very near a cell, so the capillaries can deliver oxygenated…

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