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RESPIRATION
Aerobic Respiration:
Respiration takes place in every cell in the human body.…read more

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GLUCOSE ETHANOL +CARBON DIOXIDE
This process is used to make beer, yoghurt etc.
GAS EXCHANGE IN HUMANS
Structure of the Thorax:
TRACHEA ­ Windpipe from mouth to lungs. C shaped cartilage rings.
INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES ­ Run between ribs. Contract + expand chest.
RIBS ­ Long curved bones that form the ribcage.
BRONCHUS ­ Air tube entering lungs. Splits into two from windpipe.
BRONCHIOLE ­ Smaller air tubes from bronchus to alveoli.
DIAPHRAGM ­ Arched muscular sheet. Contracts + lowers (inhalation) to
increase thorax volume.…read more

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INHALATION
EXHALATION
INHALED AIR EXHALED AIR
OXYGEN 21% 17%
CARBON DIOXIDE 0.…read more

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Inhaled + Exhaled Air:
EXHALED AIR contains less oxygen that INHALED AIR because
the oxygen diffuses from the alveoli to the blood.
EXHALED AIR contains more carbon dioxide that INHALED AIR
because the carbon dioxide (made by cells in respiration) diffuses
from the blood to the alveoli and out.
Alveoli:
ROLE:
The exchange of oxygen
and carbon dioxide
ADAPTATION FOR DIFFUSION:
1. One cell thick (short diffusion pathway)
2. Millions of them (Large surface area for gas exchange)
3.…read more

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Smoking and Health:
TAR coats the ciliated cells in our breathing system. It is
also a carcinogen (a cancer causing agent)
CONSEQUENCE: If the cilia can't waft away the damaging particles, bacteria
multiply casing respiratory diseases.
CARBON MONOXIDE combines with haemoglobin in red
blood cells to form carboxyhaemoglobin which takes the
place of oxygen, therefore reducing the oxygen carrying
capacity of the red blood cell.…read more

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Nicotine increases heart rate as it is a stimulant, which raises blood
pressure.
(Tar reduces efficiency of the lungs so heart has to work harder)
Carbon Monoxide (CO) attaches to red blood cells, so less oxygen
carried, cells still need to respire, therefore heart needs to pump
the blood (with less oxygen) around faster.…read more

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