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CELL STRUCTURE AND ORGANISATION

LEVELS OF ORGANISATION

MOLECULAR LEVEL
Enzymes, hormones, chlorophyll



ORGANELLE LEVEL
Nucleus, mitochondrion, chloroplast



CELLULAR LEVEL
Red blood cells, xylem cells, muscle cells



TISSUE LEVEL
A group of similar cells with the same structure and function, e.g. skin



ORGAN LEVEL
A part of the body that functions…

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CELL STRUCTURE

Nucleus controls the cell; contains genetic material.

Cytoplasm chemical reactions; contains organelles.

Mitochondrion respiration (releasing energy from food)

Cell Membrane controls what goes in and out.



Cell wall Maintains shape of cell and helps support plant.

Chloroplast Photosynthesis (making glucose from carbon dioxide and water, using
light energy).…

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- HIGH CONCENTRATION LOW CONCENTRATION

OSMOSIS Diffusion of water
- WEAK SOLUTION (HIGH ) STRONG SOLUTION (LOW)
- Through a selectively permeable membrane.
SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE MEMBRANE: chooses which particles it lets inside the cell
Plant cell = vacuole membrane
Animal cell = cell membrane
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
Molecules (proteins) in the…

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ENZYMES
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE
- Affected by
temperature in their ability to
break down.
- Through our controlled
assessments (using amylase)
we discovered that
- Starch breaks down
fastest at high temperature
- After 60oC it was so hot
that the enzymes denatured
EFFECT OF pH
- Affects the shape…

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starch-each hole is 30 seconds.)

Results At about 35-40°C, which is the optimum temperature, it then
decreases as denaturation occurs.
Improve?
- You can have more data collected by having more water baths prepared at
different temperatures e.g at 10°C, 20°C, 30°C etc.
- You can just add iodine solution…

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Water ­ Makes up for lost fluids through breathing and sweating
Drinks and some fruit and veg


Fibre ­ Keeps the large intestine healthy and prevent constipation:
Wholegrain, wholemeal and oats
PROCESSES

INGESTION Consuming something and taking it into the body
EGESTION Discharging undigested food as faeces.
DIGESTION Food is…

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Class of Examples Digestive Action Source of Where it acts in
Enzyme Enzyme the gut

Carbohydrases Pancreatic Amylase Starch ­ maltose Pancreas Small intestine

Maltase Maltose - glucose Wall of small Small intestine
intestine
Proteases Pepsin Proteins ­ Peptides Stomach wall Stomach

Trypsin Proteins ­ peptides Pancreas Small intestine

Peptidases…

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By using PERISTALSIS it delivers food to your stomach
STOMACH:
Hollow organ that holds food while it is being mixed with enzymes
Cells in the lining secrete a strong acid & powerful enzymes breakdown
When the contents of the stomach are processed, they are released into the small
intestine
SMALL…

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Chlorophyll
6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2
FACTORS FOR RATE
LIGHT
Light intensity increases photosynthesis increases
Light excites chlorophyll molecules = energy for production of carbohydrates
The rate will level off as either CO2 or temperature become the limiting factor
CARBON DIOXIDE
Carbon dioxide increases photosynthesis increases
Limiting factors apply…

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GLUCOSE USES
Respiration to release energy
Joined together to make starch for storage
Proteins for growth
Seeds for fats and oils
Cellulose for cell walls
Fructose for fruits
MINERAL USE IN PLANT DEFICIENCY SIGNS
Nitrogen Making leaves Upper leaves pale green
Lower leaves pale and dead
Stunted growth ­ weak…

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lwood7

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These notes are amazing!

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