IGCSE BIOLOGY: classification and characteristics

A mind-map of the basics for Classification and the Characteristics of living organisms.

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  • UNIT 1.1
    • Characteristics of living organisms:
      • MOVEMENT: as an action by an organism (or part of an organism) causing a change of position or place. 
      • RESPIRATION: as the chemical reactions that breakdown nutrient molecules in living cells to produce energy.
      • SENSITIVITY: as the ability to detect/sense changes in the environment or stimuli and to make (appropriate?) responses.
      • GROWTH:   as a permanent increase in size and dry mass by an increase in cell size/number or both.
      • REPRO-   DUCTION: as the processes that make more of the same kind of organism.
      • EXCRETION: as the removal of toxic materials, waste products of metabolism and substances in excess from organisms.
      • NUTRITION: as the taking in of nutrients which are organic substances or mineral ions, containing raw materials or energy for growth a tissue repair, absorbing and assimilating them.
    • Classification and diversity of living organisms:
      • BINOMIAL NAMING:     a system in which the SCIENTIFIC name of an organism is made up of TWO PARTS showing the GENUS and SPECIES.
      • Main features of vertebrates:
        • BONY FISH: scales, gills to breathe, lay eggs in water, cold blooded, live in water.
        • AMPHIBIANS: moist skin (smooth/rough), lungs/skin/gills to breathe, lay eggs, cold blooded, live on land and water.
        • REPTILES: scales, lungs to breathe, majority lay eggs some have live young, cold blooded, live on land and water(?).
        • BIRDS: feathers with scaly legs+feet, lungs and air sacs to breathe, lay eggs with had shells, warm blooded, live on land.
        • MAMMALS: hair and skin, lungs to breathe, live young, warm blooded, live on land and water.
      • CLADISTICS: another form of classification based on RNA + DNA sequencing data.
      • MONO -COTYLEDONS: 1 cotyledon in seeds, 3 (or multiples of) floral parts, parallel leaf veins, 1 pore/furrow in pollen grains.
      • DICOTY - LEDONS: 2 cotyledons in seeds, 4/5 (or multiples of) floral parts, net-like leaf veins, 3 pores/furrows in pollen grains.
      • Classification of Arthropods, Annelids, Nematodes and Molluscs.
        • ARTHROPODS:
          • GENERAL: jointed legs, hard outer covering (exoskeleton) many segments.
          • MYRIAPODS: many segments, many legs, 1 pair antennae. (centipedes & millipedes)
          • CRUSTACEANS: strong exoskeleton, many pairs of legs, 2 pairs of antennae, head and thorax region (cephalothorax) and abdomen, each part made of many segments. (crabs, shrimps, woodlice)
          • INSECTS:    3 parts (head, thorax and abdomen), 3 pairs of legs, 2 pars of wings, 1 pair of antennae. (beetles, ants, wasps, flies...)
          • ARACHNIDS: 2 parts (cephalothorax and abdomen) 4 pairs of legs, no antennae. (spiders, scorpions)
        • ANNELIDS: many segments or rings, no legs but some have tiny stiff haris - chaetae. (worms, leeches)
        • MOLLUSCS: soft unsegmented bodies, sometimes enclosed in hard shell of calcium carbonate. (slugs, snails, oysters, mussels, limpets, squid, octopus (plural?)
        • NEMATODES: like unsegmented worms, long thin white animal with no obvious head, no legs, lives in soil or animal digestive system. (round worms)
  • MOVEMENT: as an action by an organism (or part of an organism) causing a change of position or place. 


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