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Unit 5 Modul
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Rate of reaction is the calculated through `change in
concentration of products or reactants per unit time'. It is
determined by finding the gradient of the curve/ line in a
concentration against time graph at any…

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Sameer Biology
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Unit 5 Modul
e 1 How Far
How Fast





Overall equation is the sum of each step of the reaction




How Far
Le Chatleir's principle: "equilibrium system under change will shift position of equilibrium in order to
minimise change".

Equilibrium constant Kc, determines the proportion of reactants…

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Unit 5 Modul
e 1 How Far
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Acids and bases
Acids are species that can donate a proton (H+), if a compound willing to accept it; whereas bases are
species that can accept a proton. The roles of a proton (H+) in acidic reactions include:…

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Unit 5 Modul
e 1 How Far
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The acid dissociation constant (Ka) measures to the extent dissociation in a weak
acid (position of equilibrium/ Kc for acid), where:

A large Ka value indicates a stronger (weak) acid
A small Ka value indicates a weak acid…

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Sameer Biology
Jahabarali


Unit 5 Modul
e 1 How Far
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Calculation of pH is carried out if [H+(aq)] is known. Therefor [H+(aq)] can be calculated (through rearranging
formulas) for:

strong monobasic acids, using concentration of acid
weak monobasic acids, using concentration of acid and
Ka
strong bases,using Kw…

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Sameer Biology
Jahabarali


Unit 5 Modul
e 1 How Far
How Fast






A sharp rise in pH, the vertical section when the centre is the equivalence point (the solution in the
conical flask has exactly reacted with the solution in burette)
A slight rise in pH, when the solution of…

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