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Globalisation, green crime, state crime
and human rights
Define, Decode, Signpost
Criminal behaviour is an act which breaks a formal law, such as murder, whereas deviant behaviour is
that which breaks a norm. Definitions of crime and deviance are socially constructed their definitions
are culturally determined. Contemporary criminology has explored the influence of globalisation on
crime. Many claim that crime is now taking place within a global context. Such crimes include cyber
crime, state crimes and breeches of human rights. In this essay I will discuss (DECODE).
What is global crime?
Held: The global criminal economy
o Globalisation refers to the growing interconnectedness of societies, brought about by
internet and global mass media.
o It also includes deregulation of global financial markets, creating new context for global
crime worth £1 trillion per year.
o Including: Cyber crime, arms trafficking, smuggling illegal immigrant, trafficking women and
o When explaining global crimes we must explore the idea of supply and demand. Demand
comes from western world but supple from LEDC's e.g. Columbia has workers involved in
production of drugs.
o This is a relationship of exploitation due to low wages and high prices.
Global risk and border control
o Globalisation led to new insecurities and worries e.g. illegal immigrants.
o NB: these are often exaggerated by the media moral panic.
o This has lead to more intense social control at borders e.g. fining airlines for brining in
illegal immigrants, and thermal imaging, fences and CCTV.
Taylor: Global capitalism and crime
o Marxist prospective explores the global elite e.g. TNC's who have wealth often transfer
manufacturing to low wage companies e.g. Primark. They exploit poorest workers in the
o Marketing within global capitalism creates a consumer materialist culture makes consumers
want to buy material goods which can lead to crime.
o Global financial markets has created more opportunity for WCC e.g. fraud
Globalisation and organised crime
Hobs and Dunnigham
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They claim organised crime is now structured in terms of hub of senior high status criminals.
o Around this hub exists a loose knit network of both legitimate and illegitimate activities.
o This is very different to the traditional large scale hierarchal organised crime e.g. mafia
o These new criminal organisations sometimes have international links especially with the
Glemy: The Mcmafia
o Following the fall of communism, many senior Russians e.g.…read more
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Favoured my green criminologists.
Primary and secondary green crime
Primary: These are crimes that result directly from the destruction of the earth's environment.
o Air pollution: burning fossil fuels and transport emissions. The potential criminals are
governments and companies
o Deforestation: Between 1960-1990 1/5 of the worlds rain forest was destroyed through
o Species decline and animal rights: 50 species a day become extinct.
o Trafficking of animals and animal parts
o Water pollution: 25 million die annually from drinking contaminated water.…read more