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Globalisation is the interconnectedness of various societies; what happens in one
society will affect other societies and vice versa.
Causes of globalisation:
information, communication and technology
Influence of mass media
GLOBAL CRIMINAL ECONOMY:
Held et al: globalisation of crime has brought about the spread of transitional
organised crime. Globalisation leads to new opportunities for crimes such as cyber
crime.
Castells: global criminal economy is worth over £1 trillion per year.
Forms of globalised crime:
Arms trafficking (leads to terrorism)
Cyber crimes
Green crimes
Smuggling of illegal immigrants/drugs/goods
Sex tourisms
Global criminal economy has a supply and demand side. Supply usually comes from
the poor East and the demand usually comes from the rich West.…read more

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GLOBAL RISK CONSCIOUSNESS:
Risk consciousness of crime is seen as global and the risk knowledge
comes from the media which creates a moral panic.
This is usually intensified by politicians and social controls toughen up.
For example the media creates a moral panic about the supposed threats
such as terrorism, and the politicians exaggerate this.
GLOBALISATION, CAPITALISM AND CRIME:
Left realists: materialistic culture of success promoted by mass media has
increased globalisation.
Taylor:
Globalisation has lead to the changes in crime.
Globalisation has created crime at both supply and demand countries.
Globalisation has lead to new patterns of employment which has lead to
new crime opportunities.
Evaluation:
Links global trends in capitalist economies which changes patterns in
crime.
However it doesn't explain how the changes turns people into criminals,
as not all poor people are criminals…read more

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PATTERNS OF CRIMINAL ORGANISATIONS:
McMafia:
Glenny: criminal organisations emerged when Russian communism fell.
Russian mafias made criminals links locally and globally for personal gain.
Hobbs & Dunningham:
The way crime is organised is linked to the economic changes brought by
globalisation
`Glocal organisation' :
Crime is rooted locally but the crime trades still have global links.
Evaluation:
It's not clear if old crime structures have disappeared or not
Their conclusions cannot be generalised to all types of crimes elsewhere…read more

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Green /environmental crime are crimes against the environment.
Threats to the eco-system are increasingly global rather than local
Nuclear industries spread its chemicals into the air which can travel
several miles, affecting people in different areas.
GLOBAL RISK SOCIETY AND THE ENVIRONMENT:
Beck: improvements on technology has created new `manufactured
risks'. Many of these risks involve harm to the environment and
humanity. E.g. Global warming caused by excess greenhouse gas
created by industries.
GREEN CRIMINOLOGY:
Takes a more radical approach than traditional criminology.
White believes that criminology should relate to the harm of the
environment or humans rather than if a law has been broken or not. It
is a form of transgressive criminology. Laws on green crime is different
for different countries therefore a crime in one country may not a
crime in another country. This makes green crimes situational. The
powerful, especially states are able to define what is a green crime
and what isn't based on their own interests.…read more

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Two views of harm:
Anthropocentric view sees humans as having a right to dominate
nature. States favour this.
Ecocentric view sees humans and environment as interdependent.
Favoured by green criminology.
TYPES OF CRIME:
Primary crimes: crimes that result from the destruction of earths
sources
Secondary crimes: crimes that grow out of the paths of preventing or
regulating environmental crimes.
Evaluation:
Recognises the growing harm being inflicted on the environment
Focuses too much on the broader context of environmental harm
rather than green crime, which doubts the aims of the studies.
Critiques argue that this matter cannot be discussed objectively as it is
about morals and values.…read more

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