Geography Definitions

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  • Created on: 24-01-13 12:05
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NATURAL HAZARD = Naturally occurring process or event which has the
potential to cause loss of life and disaster.
HYDRO-METEOROLOGICAL HAZARD = Natural processes or phenomena or
atmospheric, hydrological or oceanographic nature, which may cause life and
building loss, and economic disruptions. E.g. cyclones, floods, droughts
GEOPHYISCAL HAZARD = Natural hazards where the principle cause is
geological or geomorphological. E.g. landslides, volcanoes, earthquakes
CYCLONE = Violent tropical storm or wind in which air moves faster in a circular
direction. E.g. Bangladesh
FLOOD = Fill or cover with a body of water especially in a way that causes
problems. E.g. Somerset
DROUGHT = Long period of time when there is little or no rain. E.g. Africa
LANDSLIDE = Mass of rock and earth moving suddenly and quickly down a
steep slope. E.g. Himalayas
VOLCANO = Mountain with a hole at the top through which lava, gases, steam
and dust are forced out. E.g. Mount Pinatubo

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EARTHQUAKE = Sudden violent movement of the earth's surface, sometimes
causing damage.
DESTRUCTIVE PLATE = Where two plates meet and where oceanic crust is
being destroyed by subduction. E.g. Andes
CONSTRUCTIVE PLATE = two plates moving away from each other. As the two
plates separate, hot magma is able to rise to fill the 'gap' creating new crust.
As magma continues to build up, new mountain ranges form under the sea
creating a mid-oceanic ridge. E.g.…read more

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SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION = Spread of a varying observations, such as income,
within a population across an area.
MAGNITUDE = Size of the event. E.g. Richter Scale for earthquakes
FREQUENCY = How often an event of a certain size occurs.
ENSO = Term used to describe the full range of events triggered by the
see-saw motion of atmospheric pressure over the pacific.…read more

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THERMOCLINE = Sharp boundary between cold deep water and warm surface
GREENHOUSE EFFECT = Natural process by which the earth's atmosphere
warms up and keeps the planet habitable.
ENHANCED GREENHOUSE EFFECT = Human activity is changing the
composition of the atmosphere and making it more effective at trapping heat.
ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT = Measure of the amount of land and water a
population needs in order to produce the resources that it consumes, and to
absorb waste, with existing technology.…read more

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DEPENDENCY RATIO = Formula that compares the proportion of a population
that is economically non-active with the proportion that actually generates
BIRTH RATE = Number of babies born per 1000 per year.
DEATH RATE = Number of deaths per 1000 per year.
INFANT MORTALITY RATE = Number of deaths in the first year of life per 1000
per year.
NATURAL POPULATION CHANGE = Difference between the number of people
being born and the number of people dying.…read more

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INTERNATIONAL MIGRANT = Person moves across an international boundary.
This may be permanent or semi-permanent.
REFUGEE = Person who has fled from or been deported from their country.
ASYLUM SEEKER = person whose application for asylum for a country of which
he or she is not a citizen is pending, and who claims of fear of prosecution if
returned home.…read more

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URBANISATION = Increase in the percentage of people living in towns or
HYPER-URBANISATION = Where the increase in the urban population is
happening so rapidly that the city cannot cope with the needs of the people.
SUBURBANISATION-SPRAWL = People live further away from the central,
urban are and travel in for work.
DONUT CITY = City with a hole in the central `downtown' area.…read more

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VERTICAL INTEGRATION = Controlling and owning every stage of production
from exploration and research through to sales. E.g. Exxon owns oil wells, oil
tankers, oil refineries and petrol stations.
EXPORT PROCESSING ZONES = Zones in which businesses are free to import
raw materials, process and manufacture them, and re-export without paying
duties or tariffs, helping to keep costs down.
GLOBAL NETWORK = Links between different countries in the world, including
flows of goods, services, money, people and information.…read more

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OECD = Global `think tank' for 30 of the world's wealthiest nations.
OPEC = Established to regulate the global oil market, stabilise prices, and
ensure a fair return for the 11 member states who between them supply 40%
of the world's oil.
G8 = Represents 65% of the world's trade and meets annually to discuss
economic development. It includes Russia, USA, UK, France, Germany, Canada,
Italy and Japan.…read more


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