Geography Population

Geography Population definitions and case studies

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What is the definition of birth rate?

The number of babies born per year per 1000 of the population.

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What is the definition of death rate?

The number of deaths per year per 1000 of the population.

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What is the definition of life expectancy?

The average age that a person can expect to live until from birth provided that there are no change in living conditions.

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What is the definition of natural increase/decreas

The difference between the number of births and deaths. If it's positive, it's a natural increase but negative is a natural decrease.

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What is the definition of fertility rate?

The average number of babies that are born per woman of child-bearing age (approx 16-40) in the country.

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What is the definition of infant mortality rate?

A measure of the number of infants dying under 1 year of age per 1000 live births per year. Some data sets will say 5 years.

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What is the definition of population structure?

How the population is made up in terms of gender and age.

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What is the definition of change over time?

The change in the population that occurs naturally due to births and deaths and not migration.

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What is the definition of dependency ratio?

It shows how many young people (under 16) and older people (over 64) depend on people of working age (16-40).

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How is demographic data collected?

Census - in the UK there is a census every 10 years. People are given a form to fill out a number of questions on it about age, gender, family, jobs etc.

Sample surveys - these are used for updating census information by taking a sample of the total population eg Labour Force Surveys.

Registration - People register births, deaths and marriages at the local Registry Office.

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What are the problems with gathering data?

Homeless people can be missed.

Cost of the census.

Some households may be missed.

Literacy or misunderstanding of the form.

Remote parts of the country may be difficult to survey.

People may be reluctant to give information.

People might not register births.

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What are the advantages of the National Census?

Used to determine spending priorities and track population movements.

Academies, charities and religious organisations rely on information.

A source of research for future generations.

Future historians can interpret this era.

It enables the Government to allocate resources.

Churches rely on information about levels of church-going.

It's traditional.

Shows social habits, the government can make improvements.

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What are the disadvantages of the National Census?

It is expensive and is inaccurate.

The 2011 census cost £482 million.

Inaccurate and out of data. Approc 1.5 million households didn't complete it.

Information won't be published until the middle of the year, by which time many counted will have moved or died.

Out of date almost as soon as it has been done.

Rules aren't properly enforced. In 2001, just 38 people were fined for not filling it in.

Forms take 40 minutes to complete.

Criticised for asking intrusive questions.

People don't take it seriously; listing their faith as 'jedi'.

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What is the Demographic Transition Model?

Population change comes about due to variations in the BR and DR for the selected countries. The DTM describes how the BR and DR change over time. It was developed from a study in England and Wales, and Sweden and has now been applied to many other countries.

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What happens in Stage 1 of the DTM?

High Stationary

High death rates; disease, no hygiene.

High birth rates; no birth control, children needed for work.

Population fluctuating between growth and decline.

Dependency ratios tip towards the young due to low life expectancy - large extended families.

Primary sector is dominant,; farming.

Emphasis on self-sufficiency and working with raw materials.

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What happens in Stage 2 of the DTM?

Early Expanding

More births than deaths; better housing, modest healthcase, food/water.

Population growth accelerates.

Trade in primary products and processed goods.

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What happens in Stage 3 of the DTM?

Late Expanding

Fall in the birth rate due to; birth control, desire for smaller families, lower infant mortality.

Rate of population begins to ease.

Death rates continue to fall.

Industrial growth and diversification.

Dependency ratios begin to tip towards the elderly due to increased life expectancy. 

Family size declines.

Extended families diminish.

Trade in both goods and services.

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What happens in Stage 4 of the DTM?

Low Stationary

Growth is quite steady; intermittent decline.

Low birth rates; career women, birth control.

Death rates stabilise; advances in medicine cancelled out by degenerative diseases.

Service sector becomes dominant due to increased affluence.

Old population with high elderly dependency.

Trade in information and technology.

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What happens in Stage 5 of the DTM?

High total population.

Low fluctuating birth and death rates.

Natural decrease.

Two groups of countries appear to have entered Stage 5 since the mid 1990s. These are some countries of central and eastern Europe, where the birth rate has fallen below replacement level and some countries of southern Africa where HIV/AIDS has caused a rapid rise in the death rate.

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What are the strengths of the DTM?

It is dynamic, showing change through time.

It describes what has happened in the UK.

Many other countries in Europe and North America went through similar stages as they industrialised.

Some newly industrialised countries (NICs) such as Singapore and South Korea also seemed to go through similar stages, but faster than countries like Britain has done.

The model helps to explain what has happened and why is has happened in that particular sequence.

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What are the weaknesses of the DTM?

It is based on the experience of industrialising countries.

Model assumes stage 2 followed from industrialisation; not the case in many countries - factors that causes falling death rate were imported and arrived quickly in Europe.

Model assumed that Stage 3 followed several decades after Stage 2 and that the death rate fell as a consequence of changes brought about by changes in the birth rate. In some countries it was held back by attitudes to family size, status, religion etc.

Original model has to be adapted to include a fifth stage.

Countries of Southern Africa where death rate has risen dramatically (HIV/AIDS) appear to be like Stage 1. Model doesn't help to predict the future of these countries.

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What does the dependency ratio show?

The relationship between the economically active population and the non-economically active population.

The higher the Dep R, the more very young/old people there are.

Highest Dep R are in countries that fall into Stages 1 and 5 of the DTM-pop pyramids have wide base/top.

Lowest Dep R is in Stage 3 and 4 of the DTM-pop pyramids are well balanced.

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What are the benefits and uses of the Dependency R

Calculate required tax rates.

Allocate spending priorities.

Indicates birth and death rates.

Indicates population structure.

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What are the drawbacks of the Dependency Ratio?

Doesn't take account of those working beyond retirement age.

Unemployed.

Those on benefits.

Child labour.

Student workers.

Informal 'cash in hand' workers.

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What are the challenges of a Youthful Population?

Less university places.

Demands on public services.

Harder to get a job.

Increased population growth/high birth rate.

High unemployment.

Demand for benefits.

National economy could suffer.

More schools and services (for the youth) are needed.

Risk of increased violence; riots, looting, disrespectful society.

More cars - more pollution and congestion.

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What are the opportunities of a youthful populatio

Well educated and hard-working.

Well motivated, enthusiastic.

Economic development - investing in more businesses.

New cultural events.

Good work ethics.

Maintain population.

Change in values and attitudes.

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What does Iran's population pyramid look like?

Short life expectancy

High death rate

Fall in birth rate

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What is the Iran case study?

Urban revolution - women who have moved into cities usually have fewer children than those in rural areas.

Education revolution - slow but steady increase for girls and women. Educated women are more likely to marry later, become aware of family planning and then gain employment.

Migration revolution - women who migrate from Iran (to places such as Europe) have a more westernised lifestyle with smaller families and more consumer goods.

Working revolution - women working in cities find it more difficult to arrange childcare, and will therefore have fewer children.

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What is the definition of population distribution?

How people are spread out in terms of where they live.

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What is the definition of population density?

The number of people who live per km squared.

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What is the definition of sparsely populated?

Very few people per km squared.

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What is the definition of densely populated?

Lots of people per km squared.

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What are the advantages of an aging population?

Increase in life expectancy.

2.2 replacement rate.

Staying healthier to an older age.

35% aged 75+ give up their time to help others.

Increasing the retirement age.

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What are the disadvantages of an aging population?

Living longer and having less children.

Economisers warned about dependency ratio.

Young and elderly; consume more than they produce.

Shrinking young workforce.

Couples having less children.

Increasing the retirement age.

Rising costs.

Number of people in nursing homes is increasing.

Decline in birth rate.

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What is the Japan case study?

Elderly people are regarded as a key role in the family as they can take care of the family home whilst other family members are at work.

The number of people living in a nursery home is increasing; the cost of care split between the person, their family and the government.

Longer life expectancy and the proportion of elderly people increasing puts pressure on the nation's economy.

Many families prefer to look after the elderly on their own, without professional help, and don't see them as a burden.

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What is the Brasil case study?

Population density/distribution.

The tropical rainforest; hot climate, wet and humid, rivers flood annually, high incidence of disease, forest has been difficult to clear.

Sao Paulo/Rio de Janeiro - coastal area is hot/humid but the water supply is good. Natural harbors are ideal for ports; encouraged trade and growth of industry.

The dry north-east, drought, hot temperatures, poor soils (unsuitable for crops or animals).

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What is the definition of optimum population?

The population at which the quality of life of the people of a country or region is at the highest possible, at a given level of technological development. Can also be known as the carrying capacity.

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What is the definition of overpopulation?

When an increase in population reduces the average quality of life of the population.

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What is the definition of underpopulation?

When an increase in population could increase the average quality of life.

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What is the definition of suitable consumption?

A pattern of consumption that ensures that the living standards of future generations are not compromised, ie so that they have plenty of resources.

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What is Esther Boserup's population theory?

Opposite to Thomas Malthus.

She said population determined agriculture.

Increases in population act to stimulate changes in agricultural methods.

Pressure increase in the workforce.

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What are the advantages of an aging population?

Increase in life expectancy.

2.2 replacement rate.

Staying healthier to an older age.

35% aged 75+ give up their time to help others.

Increasing the retirement age.

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What is Julian Simon's population theory?

Believed natural resources were infinite and we can discover alternative ones.

We needed more intelligence.

"The main fuel to speed the world's progress is the stock of human knowledge."

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What are the disadvantages of an aging population?

Living longer and having less children.

Economisers warned about dependency ratio.

Young and elderly; consume more than they produce.

Shrinking young workforce.

Couples having less children.

Increasing the retirement age.

Rising costs.

Number of people in nursing homes is increasing.

Decline in birth rate.

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What is Esther Boserup's population theory?

He argued that the number of people would increase faster than the food supply.

Population would eventually reach a resource limit (overpopulation).

Any further increase would result in a population crash, caused by famine, disease or war.

Suggested only moral restraint (birth control) could prevent crisis.

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What is the Japan case study?

Elderly people are regarded as a key role in the family as they can take care of the family home whilst other family members are at work.

The number of people living in a nursery home is increasing; the cost of care split between the person, their family and the government.

Longer life expectancy and the proportion of elderly people increasing puts pressure on the nation's economy.

Many families prefer to look after the elderly on their own, without professional help, and don't see them as a burden.

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What is the Club of Rome and what did they say?

A group of scientists, academics and politicians from 10 countries that met in 1972 to establish a research project on the future of the human race.

Conclusion was that if present rates of population growth and industrialisation, pollution, food production and resource depletion continue changes, limits to growth of the Earth will be reached sometimes within the next 100 years.

Food production has increased, however environmental concerns have now come to the fore.

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What is the Brasil case study?

Population density/distribution.

The tropical rainforest; hot climate, wet and humid, rivers flood annually, high incidence of disease, forest has been difficult to clear.

Sao Paulo/Rio de Janeiro - coastal area is hot/humid but the water supply is good. Natural harbors are ideal for ports; encouraged trade and growth of industry.

The dry north-east, drought, hot temperatures, poor soils (unsuitable for crops or animals).

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What is the definition of optimum population?

The population at which the quality of life of the people of a country or region is at the highest possible, at a given level of technological development. Can also be known as the carrying capacity.

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What is the Mauritius case study?

An island of the coast of South Africa; growth rate of 1.45%, population doubling time of 47 years, fertility rate of 1.2 children.

Up until the 1950s, Mauritius was experiencing a Malthusian Crisis.

In 1950s; Mauritius was starting to develop economically.

Put more money and research into healthcare - malaria was being eradicated.

Birth rate suddenly rose from 35 to 45+ per 1000.

Death rate declined sharply from 30 to 15 per 1000.

Very steep natural increase.

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What is the definition of overpopulation?

When an increase in population reduces the average quality of life of the population.

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How did Mauritius try to avoid a Malthusian Crisis

Government organised a family planning programme aiming to:

- improve the status of women

- restrict early marriage and change attitudes to family size

- improve educational opportunities for women

- getting married later on in life

- improve female work opportunities

- diversification of agriculture

- investment in industry

- improve trading links

- many TNCs are drawn to Mauritius

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Why were TNCs attracted to Mauritius in the 1950s?

- Holds 'export processing zone' (EPZ) status

- Tax incentives available

- Has large numbers of well educated residents

- Good level of investment in transport

- Good supply of cheap labour

- The creation of a Freeport at Port Louis

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What is the definition of underpopulation?

When an increase in population could increase the average quality of life.

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What is the definition of suitable consumption?

A pattern of consumption that ensures that the living standards of future generations are not compromised, ie so that they have plenty of resources.

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How can Mauritius be related to Boserup's theory?

Because after the 1950s, changes were made to control population growth and to develop the country's resource base.

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How can Mauritius be related to Malthus' theory?

Before the 1950s, the birth rate had risen sharply and the death rate had declined shortly. Therefore the population was growing dramatically but the amount of resources were staying the same.

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What is Esther Boserup's population theory?

Opposite to Thomas Malthus.

She said population determined agriculture.

Increases in population act to stimulate changes in agricultural methods.

Pressure increase in the workforce.

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What is Julian Simon's population theory?

Believed natural resources were infinite and we can discover alternative ones.

We needed more intelligence.

"The main fuel to speed the world's progress is the stock of human knowledge."

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What is a population policy?

A deliberate attempt by the Government to alter the population of a place. It can be long term or short term, and have positive or negative affects.

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What is Esther Boserup's population theory?

He argued that the number of people would increase faster than the food supply.

Population would eventually reach a resource limit (overpopulation).

Any further increase would result in a population crash, caused by famine, disease or war.

Suggested only moral restraint (birth control) could prevent crisis.

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What is the Club of Rome and what did they say?

A group of scientists, academics and politicians from 10 countries that met in 1972 to establish a research project on the future of the human race.

Conclusion was that if present rates of population growth and industrialisation, pollution, food production and resource depletion continue changes, limits to growth of the Earth will be reached sometimes within the next 100 years.

Food production has increased, however environmental concerns have now come to the fore.

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What is the Mauritius case study?

An island of the coast of South Africa; growth rate of 1.45%, population doubling time of 47 years, fertility rate of 1.2 children.

Up until the 1950s, Mauritius was experiencing a Malthusian Crisis.

In 1950s; Mauritius was starting to develop economically.

Put more money and research into healthcare - malaria was being eradicated.

Birth rate suddenly rose from 35 to 45+ per 1000.

Death rate declined sharply from 30 to 15 per 1000.

Very steep natural increase.

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How did Mauritius try to avoid a Malthusian Crisis

Government organised a family planning programme aiming to:

- improve the status of women

- restrict early marriage and change attitudes to family size

- improve educational opportunities for women

- getting married later on in life

- improve female work opportunities

- diversification of agriculture

- investment in industry

- improve trading links

- many TNCs are drawn to Mauritius

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Why were TNCs attracted to Mauritius in the 1950s?

- Holds 'export processing zone' (EPZ) status

- Tax incentives available

- Has large numbers of well educated residents

- Good level of investment in transport

- Good supply of cheap labour

- The creation of a Freeport at Port Louis

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How can Mauritius be related to Boserup's theory?

Because after the 1950s, changes were made to control population growth and to develop the country's resource base.

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How can Mauritius be related to Malthus' theory?

Before the 1950s, the birth rate had risen sharply and the death rate had declined shortly. Therefore the population was growing dramatically but the amount of resources were staying the same.

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What is a population policy?

A deliberate attempt by the Government to alter the population of a place. It can be long term or short term, and have positive or negative affects.

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Comments

Rock

you've repeated some slides towards the end

Rock

also on slide 45, you've said that boserup's theory is about famine and stuff. That slide i believe is meant to be Mathus's theory

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