pass geography

  • Created by: ra9718
  • Created on: 17-05-16 17:27
what does the CBD stands for?
the CBD stands for central business district
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what is the CBD ?
is the main focal point where retails, banks, shops and malls are reunited
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what is an example of CBD ?
eldon square located in the city of newcastle upon tyne
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what are main competitors of the CBD ?
out of town shopping(metrocentre) and online shopping(ebay/amazon)
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what are the issues of the CBD ?
pedestrianisation/ clone towns/accessibility/recreational districts/competition from the internet and out of town shopping
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what does online shopping that the CBD doesn't have?
Better Prices/Convenience/Variety/Price comparisons/few traps/Easy access to consumer reviews/Buyer protection/No pressure sales/High satisfaction percentage
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what are the measures used by the CBD (Eldon Square) in order to mantain a vibrant retailing experience ?
organizing events such as Live at 5/ late opening/student discounts(up to 20 %)/fashion weeks/extension for more shops
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how many car spaces has metrocentre?
more than 20000
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how many shops does metrocentre have?
more than 340
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what are the features of the CBD?
historical sites(st.nicholas cathedral/grainger town),shopping area(eldon square),recreational district(the gate),office areas(top quayside),transport hubs (metro central station),quasi retailing(banks/building societies)
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what are the threats of the CBD?
anti-social behavior/vandalism/nightlife/police/***** clubs/access/parking/clone towns/
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what is the rural-urban fringe?
is the part of the city where it meets with the countryside
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what is an example of rural urban fringe?
newcastle great park
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why recently there has been increasing demand for land in the rural urban fringe?
Land is cheaper/there is less traffic congestion and pollution/there is easier access and a better road infrastructure/there is a more pleasant environment with more open space
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what do developers want the land of the RUF for?
science and business parks/extensive recreation(golf course and shooting range)/hotels/housing developments/conference centres/
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What are the problems caused by developing the RUF?
large areas of the countryside may be lost/villages become suburbanised/ traffic is likely to increase/ there might be an increase in pollution
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How can change at the RUF be managed?
prevent urban sprawl/ encourage developers to use brownfield sites/ prevent towns from merging/ preserve the special character of towns
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How can development at the RUF be managed?
by building new towns such as cramlington to prevent urban sprawl spreading and a better life quality
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how many hectares does Newcastle great park have?
484
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what are the key features?
major new roads linked to A1/ 2500 new houses over the next 15 years/new shops and schools/£800 million in investments/up to 500 new small or medium businesses
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what is regeneration?
the revival of a town by boosting its economy and bring a new and more vigorous life to the area
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why is regeneration important?
because it reduces Deindustrialisation /Dereliction /Wasteland/ Social Exclusion and it contributes to global changes
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what does dereliction means?
in ruins or deserted by by an owner
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what are the characteristics of the quayside?
for many years it has been a place that no one wanted to use/buildings were suffering from dereliction/in the 70s and 80s the area was made up of disused industrial sites, general polluted & dereliction/ the area didn't have a good reputation
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how much money did the deputy prime minister give to fund the project?
£73 million
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what are the developments of the quayside area?
the baltic/the millenium bridge/the sage/the hilton hotel
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what are the characteristics of the the baltic?
it was finished in 2002/the idea came in 1992/it cost £34.9 million in total/most of the funding came from the lottery fund and the arts ccouncil
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what are the characteristics of the millennium bridge?
it was part of the 1st phase of the regeneration scheme/ it opened in 2002/ it cost £22 million/ the millennium commission gave a grant of £9.7 million
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what are the characteristics of the hilton hotel?
it open in 2004/it cost £25 million
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what are the characteristics of the sage?
it opened in 2004/ it costed £ 70 million pounds/ £47.3 million came from the lottery fund and the arts council
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what are the successes of the regeneration scheme?
it attracted £174 million worth in investments from private investors/it boosted the local economy/ it created lots of employment opportunities/ it united the cities of newcastle and gateshead/it tackled effectively problems such as social exclusions
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what is a settlement hierarchy?
is way of arranging settlements into a hierarchy basing on their population or any other criteria
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what is the hierarchy for settlements?
hamlet/village/town/city/megacity
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what are the case studies for settlement hierarchy?
bodiggo/wylam/ cramlington/newcastle upon tyne/london
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what is a hamlet?
a rural community which is too small to be considered a village
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what is a village?
is a clustered community that is larger than a hamlet but is smaller than a town
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what is a town?
is a type of settlement ranging from a few hundred to several thousand, is considered to be bigger than a village but smaller than a city although there are some exceptions that don't apply this rule
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what is a city?
is an urban settlement. definitions may vary between countries, in some population size is a criteria and in others a city may be a settlement with a particular historical,legal and administrative status
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what is a megacity?
an urban settlement that surpasses the 8 million inhabitants
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how many inhabitants are there in the settlements?
bodiggo(100), wylam(2100), cramlington(39000), newcatle upon tyne(280200), london(8,3 million)
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what is the rural-urban continuum?
is the gradual change from highly urban, commercial land uses in a cbd, through residential inner and outer suburbs, to mixed urban/rural land use on the urban fringe and beyond to rural areas.
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what are the examples in the rural-urban continuum?
wylam/cramlington/rochester/seahouses
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what is counter-urbanisation?
is a demographic and social process whereby people move from urban areas to rural areas . it first took place as a strategy in the overcrowded cities
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what is reurbanisation?
is the movement from the rural areas to the city
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what is suburbanisation?
when a rural area starts to have the characteristics of an urban area but the old core remains.
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what is the social profile of wylam?
a village with a declining industry such as ironworkers and brewers which led to a change in the character of the village. by the 20th century the village was almost populated by affluent commuters, this can cause conflict between locals an commuters
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what is the social profile of rochester?
a village which suffered from structural changes in agriculture which led to a post productive countryside with services in decline, few opportunities for younger generations and abandonment
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what is the social profile for cramlington?
a town with a decline in coal production in the 1900s. much of the town was built in the 60s and 70s as a new town. there is a large range of employment e.g. aesica pharmaceuticals. it has the similar pyramid structure of an urban area
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what is the social profile for seahouses?
a town with an rising tourist industry and improvement in facilities. this can lead to rising house prices, wealthy tourists, little sense of community,becoming a village for wealthy old people and high number of wealthy tourists.
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what is the social impacts of changing rural economy in seahouses?
there is a limited sense of community/ young people are hidden homeless as they are forced to stay at their parents homes due to the rising housing princes
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what is perception ?
is the process of using senses to acquire information about the surrounding environment
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what are the examples of perceptions of rurality?
easington and otterburn
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what is the social profile of easington?
it is between sunderland and durham, it has an population of 1880 and it had a mining community
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what are the environmental concerns of easington?
durham county has set up an initiative to clean up the mining areas around easington
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what is the housing situation in easington?
the houses are mainly terraced, they were built to accommodate the workers from the nearby mine, the type of housing needs a lot of repairs as the area of easington is in decline
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what is the employment situation in easington?
there are 1442 of 1800 unemployed
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why is there so much unemployment in the area?
because easington colliery (mine) closed taking away 1400 jobs as the government decided to import coal from overseas
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what is the social profile of otterburn?
a village located between newcastle and cumbria, and is part of the northumberland national park
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what are the services in otterburn?
hotel/ a coach company/ one road in and one road out/very few shops/ semi detached and detached country houses
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what is intra-urban migration?
movement within an area
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what are the reasons for intra-urban migration?
safety/better lifestyle/school/segregation/employment opportunities
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what is segregation?
is the separation of people in an area
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what is a student district?
an area in which the majority of the area are students
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what is getthoisation?
the process of becoming a ghetto, an isolated and underprivilidge
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which area in newcastle is a guetto?
fenham
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which area in newcastle is a student district?
jesmond
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what is the social profile of fenham?
is an area in the west end of newcastle/it has ethnically mixed population/22376 is the total population/14.4% is an ethnic minority
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what is the social profile of jesmond?
is a residential suburb/it has 12000 people/close to 2 universities:newcastle and northumbria/ lots of students live in rented flats and homes
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what does the DTM stands for?
Demographic Transitional Model
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what does the dtm shows?
birth rate/death rate/changes in population overtime
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what is birth rate?
the percentage of live babies born to a woman per thousand people
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what are the stages of the dtm?
stage 1,2,3,4,5
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what is stage 1 characterized for?
for having high birth and death rate
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what is stage 2 characterized for?
rise in birth rates and decrease in death rates
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what is stage 3 characterized for?
a slight decrease in birth rates and a decrease in death rates
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what is stage 4 characterized for?
a decrease in birth rate and an slight increase in death rate
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what is stage 5 characterized for?
a decrease in birth rate and an increase in death rate
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what is the dtm data for somalia?
br:40.87/dr:13.91/imr:100/fr:6.6/l.e:54
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what is the dtm data for ghana?
br:31.40/dr:7.37/imr:49/fr:3.9/le:61
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what is the dtm data for the UK?
br:12.22/dr:9.34/imr:4/fr:1.9/le:81
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what is the dtm data for japan?
br:8.07/dr:9.38/imr:2/fr:1.4/le:83
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Card 2

Front

what is the CBD ?

Back

is the main focal point where retails, banks, shops and malls are reunited

Card 3

Front

what is an example of CBD ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what are main competitors of the CBD ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what are the issues of the CBD ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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