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*Personality: can develop over a number of
years and is a result of experience.
*Temperament: refers to inherited aspects of
personality and therefore describes the way an
individual responds to the environment. This
stays constant throughout life.
Types of personality…read more

Slide 3

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*Their aim was to discover whether ways to
responding to an environment remain the same
throughout life.
*They studied children from infancy early
adulthood using observation and interviews.
*They found that children fell into 3 types.
*So from this they concluded that ways of
responding to the environment stayed with
children as they developed therefore
temperament is innate.
Case Study: Thomas,
Chess and Birch (1977)…read more

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He found that there were 3 types of children:
Easy, Difficult and Slow to warm up.
Longitudinal Study: this is good because it is a
way to study environment effects.
Weaknesses: Some participants are `lost' along
the way.
Parental Bias: According to agenda of parents.
Evaluation of Thomas
Et al…read more

Slide 5

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*Their aim was to test the idea that
temperature is innate.
*They studied monozygotic and dizygotic twins
and looked at 3 types of behaviour:
emotionality, activity and sociability.
*They found that there was a closer correlation
between the identical twins than the un-
identical twins.
*From this they founded that temperament
has a genetic basis.
Case Study: Buss and
Plomin (1984)…read more

Slide 6

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*Their aim was to investigate whether
temperament is due to biological differences.
*They studied the reactions of babies when
presented with new situations.
*They found that 20% of babies showed distress
and 40% showed little/no movement.
*From this they concluded that the 2
temperaments are due to inherited
differences in the way the brain responds.
Case Study: Kagan and
Snidman (1991)…read more

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