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P1 Topic 4: Waves and the Earth
Infrasound

Sound can be measured in Hertz, which is the number of complete waves that pass a point in one second. The
frequency of a sound wave determines the pitch of the sound. All sound waves are longitudinal and
therefore need to pass…

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The distance travelled by the sound wave can be found by this equation (answer must be divided by two):

distance (metre, m) = speed (metre/second, m/s) x time (second, s)

Ultrasound scans

Ultrasound can be used to make images of things in the body. One common use is for making…

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L- wave Transverse N/A N/A (goes the long way
around the crust)


Investigating the Earth

Scientists investigate the layers of rock near the surface of the Earth by setting off small explosions or
dropping large masses from trucks. These occurrences produce seismic waves which are detected by
seismometers located at…

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The distance from three or more seismometers will all cross at one place which is the epicentre of the
earthquake. This method is called triangulation.

Predicting Earthquakes and Tsunamis

Scientists can use the plate boundaries to predict where earthquakes are likely to happen. However, it is not
currently possible to…

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