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P1 Topic 6: Energy and the Future
There are nine form of energy:
o thermal flows from hot objects to colder ones
o light sun, light bulbs
o electrical whenever a current flows
o kinetic anything that's moving has it
o sound from loudspeakers or anything noisy
o chemical potential (such as the energy stored in batteries and fuels)
o nuclear potential (the energy stored in the nuclei of atoms)
o elastic potential (the energy stored by things that have been stretched or squashed and can spring
back) stretched springs, elastic, rubber bands
o gravitational potential (the energy stored in things that can fall) possessed by anything that can fall
Energy can be moved from one place to another and this is called energy transfer. Energy is often
transformed from one form into another.
Conversation of energy
A system is the word used for something in which we are studying changes.
If you add up all the energy that has been transferred by a system (the output energy) and compare it with
the energy put into the system (the input energy), the amounts are the same. Thus:
o output energy = input energy
This means energy cannot be created nor destroyed; it can only be transformed from one place to another or
transformed form one form to another. This is called the law of conservation of energy.
Energy isn't always transformed into useful forms of energy. If a ball is bounced for example, some of the
energy transforms into heat energy and there is less kinetic energy in the ball, which means it bounces at a
lower height than it was dropped from.
Energy conversion diagrams
An energy conversion diagram/Sankey diagram shows the amount of energy converted or transferred.
When a light bulb is switched on, most of the electrical energy supplied to it is converted into thermal
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This energy spreads out to the surroundings and cannot be used for other useful energy transfers.
Therefore, it is wasted.
How a good a device is at converting energy into useful forms is known as efficiency. Low energy light bulbs
transform more of the input electrical energy into light energy than older-style bulbs. As a result, they are
more efficient.…read more
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However, many scientists believe that human activities have upset this balance and the Earth is getting
warmed with the increase of greenhouse gases.
There is only a certain amount of heat that additional greenhouse gases can absorb. If all greenhouse gas
emissions are stopped, the increase in temperature will also stop and the Earth would have reached a higher,
If greenhouse gases are removed from the atmosphere, the atmosphere will be able to hold less energy and
its temperature will decrease.…read more