GCSE Geography Revision Notes

Some revision notes that summarise different topics for Geography GCSE. MAY NOT INCLUDE ALL NOTES BECAUSE I HAVENT BEEN TAUGHT WHOLE COURSE YET. Hope these help!

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  • Created on: 13-05-12 12:54
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Geography Revision Notes
Settlement Characteristics:
A settlement is a place where people live. They can be permanent or temporary.
Wet point sites; such as villages in the South Downs have a good water supply.
Dry point sites, like Ely in Cambridgeshire, are away from the risk of flooding.
Defensive sites, like Corfe Castle, have high ground so enemies can be seen from a distance.
Gap towns, like Lincoln, lie in a gap between two areas of higher ground.
Access to resources is also important, like Aberfan in the Welsh Valleys, which is near coal
reserves.
As technology advances, the importance of these factors diminishes. A modern settlement
does not have to be close to a river, because water is now piped to our homes and we use
roads instead of rivers for transport.
A settlement hierarchy is a list of settlements ordered by their size.
As settlements grow, the number of services they provide will also increase. Small
settlements only provide low order services like a post office, doctors and newsagents.
Large cities will provide low and high order services like leisure centres, chain stores and
hospitals.
Urban Models in MEDC's:
The Central Business District (CBD) is located where roads and railways converge so it's
easily accessible to workers and shoppers.
The inner city is typically next to the CBD and has mainly terraced houses in a grid like
pattern.
Run down terraced housing gets bought by investors and improved to appeal to young
professionals wanting to access the CBD. This is called gentrification.
Suburban areas are often home to commuters who need access to the CBD along main
roads and railways. They are also within easy reach of the countryside. They are typically
detached or semi-detached houses.
The edge of a town or city where it meets the country is the urban rural fringe. It could be
used for housing, golf courses, allotments, business parks and airports.
In the past geographers have put together models of how land in a 'typical' city is laid out.
One of the most famous is the concentric zone model.
Urban Models in LEDC's:
Like MEDCs, cities in LEDCS have a central business district. It contains similar features like
shops, hotels, offices, and leisure facilities.
Conditions in towns and cities can be poor. Some of the worst conditions are in the squatter
settlements or shanty towns.
Squatter settlements tend to be unplanned and illegal, and overcrowding and poor
healthcare can lead to the spread of disease.
In many LEDCs, local communities, charities and governments work together to improve
conditions.
People are given low interest loans to build their own houses, and self help schemes give
people the tools and training to improve their homes.
Investment in rural areas helps improve the quality of life, so less people need to migrate to
urban areas.

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Urbanisation in MEDC's:
Urbanisation is an increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas. It can cause a
number of problems such as congestion, lack of housing and environmental degradation.
More people are choosing to live on the edge of urban areas, with many actually relocating
to the countryside. This is called counter-urbanisation.
Counter-urbanisation can cause congestion, as many people drive to the city every day. This
is made worse because roads in the centre of urban areas are old and narrow.…read more

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Population Distribution and Density:
This is the way people are spread across an area. There are different scales: local, regional,
national, and global.
It can be measured by calculating population density, which is total population over total
land area
Population density and economic development are not closely linked.
People are unevenly distributed around the world based on environmental and human
factors.
Settlers are attracted to an area by mild climate, flat fertile land, natural resources, and
jobs with good wages.…read more

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Population increases faster than food supply so there would come a time when the world could not
cope.
- Population increases geometrically (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16)
- Food supply increases arithmetically (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5)
- Population would outgrow the amount of food available leading to famine, war and disease
Boserup Theory 1965
- Population growth has a positive impact on people as it forces them to invent a way out of a
problem when resources start to run out e.g.…read more

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Migration is the movement of people from one place to another.
Internal migration is when people migrate within the same country or region.
International migration is when people migrate from one country to another.
Emigration is when someone leaves a country.
Immigration is when someone enters a country.
Economic migration could mean moving to find work.
Social migration is moving to be near family.
Political migration can be moving to escape war.
Environmental migration is to escape natural disasters.…read more

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Falling population due
maternity leave to fertility rate
declining from 2.2 in
1988 to 1.4 in 1998
Attempts to create high-quality living spaces in urban and rural areas for all urban populations
MEDC Examples:
1) Barcelona (Spain)
A scheme was created called `biking' where people buy a year's membership for £30 which allows
them to pick up a bike from one of the 400 stations that are located around the city. There are over
6000 bikes and more than 175000 members.…read more

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