GCSE Geography- Changing Urban Environments

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Urbanisation is the growth in the proportion of a country's population living in urban areas.
It is happening in all countries around the world particularly in poorer countries
Most of the population in poorer countries currently live in urban areas
Causes of urbanisation
Urbanisation is caused by rural-urban migration
Rural-urban migration is the movement of people from the countryside to the cities.
The reasons why people move are different in poorer and richer countries
Urban Issues
Shortage of good quality housing
Run down CBDs
Traffic Congestion and pollution
Ethnic Segregation
Shortage of housing
Social and demographic changes are leading to a greater demand for housing
People are living longer/ marrying later
Rise in number of single parent families
1. Urban renewal schemes
Encourage investment in new housing, services and employment in derelict inner city
Converting Brownfield sites into high quality housing with good local services.
2. New towns
Building brand new houses to house overspill populations from existing towns and cities.
E.g. Milton Keyes
3. Relocation incentives
Encourage people living in large council houses to move out of urban areas. E.g. older
Efforts taken to revitalise CBDs
CBDs are run down because of competition from out-of-town shopping centres and business
parks, which have cheaper rent.
1. Pedestrianising areas- makes it safer and nicer for shoppers

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Improving access- better public transport links
3. Converting derelict warehouses and dock into smart shops, museums and restaurants
4. Improving public areas to make them look more attractive
Traffic & Pollution
o Air pollution- damages health and buildings
o More road accidents
o More traffic jams and congestion
o Improving public transport- reduces traffic congestion, air pollution, traffic jams and
accidents.…read more


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