Pro - Natalist - Methods to encourage people to have more children.
- Reasons: Lack of population, lack of jobs in use, etc.
- Case Study: Sweden - The population has a low fertility rate so people are urged to have more children.
- Ideas: Educate people to have more children, 1+ child policy, extra benefits, etc.
Anti - Natalist - Policies to encourage people to have fewer children.
- Reasons: Population is too high, lack of jobs & facilities, etc.
- Case Study: China - The chinese government have introduced a '1 Child' policy to reduce the rapid increase in population.
- Ideas: Educate people to have less children, 1 child policy, no immigrants into the country, free education for first child, etc.
Greenfield site - An area of farmland where no building has taken place.
- Easy to build on
- Nice environment
- Clean & empty
- Middle of no-where
- Destroys wildlife habitats
- Cost of new facilities e.g. roads
- Urban Sprawl
Brownfield site - Former industrial land.
- Foundations there already
- Less building work needed
- Electricity and gas there already
- Roads already there
- Old waste land
- They need to be cleaned
- Removal of industrial equipment
Economic Sustainability (£)
Allowing people to have access to reliable income.
Social Sustainability (☺)
Allowing people to have a reasonable quality of life with equal opportunities to achieve their potential.
Environmental Sustainability (✿)
Minimising damage to the environment and preventing all resources from being used up e.g. oil.
Environmental Problems in Urban Areas
- Pollution - climate change
- Disease - rats
- Rubbish - landfill sites
- Fossil fuels
Ecotourism - Ukuru
Ecotourism - A form of tourism designed to reduce the negative impacts of tourism on the environment.
Good points: ✔
- The environment is protected
- Local people can do guided tours
- Aboriginal lifestyles are discussed and respected
Bad points: ✖
- Most of the tourists arrive by air travel
- All food and other provisions have to be transported over long distances.
Economic Growth in Developing Countries
- Increases the population
- Increases services and better paid jobs
- Better healthcare and education
- High economy
- Longer life expectancy
- Urban Sprawl
- Under age low paid jobs
- May over-populate
- Spoils scenery
- Factory fumes bad for the environment
Rural and Urban areas
- Subsistant farming
- Less health and education
- Low wages
- Less roads
- More services, education & healthcare
- Good wages
Rural and Urban case studies - India
Rural - Bihar
- India's poorest state.
- Average income only 6000 rupees.
- 55% of households are below the poverty line.
- 80% of people work in low paid jobs.
- In 2003, only 55.8% of households had electricity and only 12% had flushing toilets.
Urban - Maharashtra
- India's richest core region.
- Contains India's largest city, Mumbai (13 million people).
- Services - banking, insurance, IT, etc.
- Manufacture - food process, textiles, etc.
- Entertainment - Bollywood filming industry.
- Leisure & business services - hotels and restaurants.
Eco-footprints and BedZED case study
Lower Income Countries - Tend to have a smaller eco-footprint due to lifestyle differences and lower levels of consumption in general.
Higher Income Countries - Tend to have a higher eco-footprint as they have materialized wealth, and therefore consume more.
Case study - BedZED
- It is a new community on a brownfield site in south London.
- It is the largest carbon-neutral eco-community in the UK.
- It focuses on social and environmental sustainability and promotes energy conservation.
- It includes 82 homes, commercial buildings and a children's nursery.
- It's aim is to reduce the amount of waste generated (including energy waste in buildings, transport and materials).
Population and Resources
Clark Fisher Model
Industrialisation and De-idustrialisation
The process of countries changing from pre-industrialised societies (mostly Primary) to industrailised countries (mostly Secondary). When a country is industrialised, a high number of people work in manufacturing.
When countries start to loose their manufacturing job because of more and more people working in the Tertiary or Service sector. Countries start making less money from making things and more money from finance, tourism and knowledge based industries.
Primary - Agriculture, Mining, Fishing, etc.
Secondary - Manufacture
Tertiary - Services, Shops, etc.
Quaternary - High-tech, research, etc.