GCSE Edexcel option 3B: War and the transformation of British society, c1931-51

My revision notes. They're quite detailed but i hope they help you :)

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Page 1

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HISTORY


KEY TOPIC 1: THE IMPACT OF THE DEPRESSION.


End of WW1 ­ only financial aid for unemployed was NATIONAL INSURANCE BENEFIT set up in 1911

For those in UNSTEADY WORK.
Workers and unemployed paid into an UNEMPLOYEMENT FUND, so that if work dried up,
they the fund would pay…

Page 2

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HISTORY

UNEMPLOYMENT WAS NOT SPREAD EVENLY

1932 ­ 37: 80% of all new factories built were in LONDON or nearby.
Usually new industries e.g. CAR BUILDING. MAINLY RAN ON ELECTRICITY, *not coal* so this DID NOT
HELP THE COAL INDUSTRY either.

They kept the employment in London and southeast up.…

Page 3

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HISTORY

1937: SPECIAL AREAS (AMENDMENT) ACT: gave tax cuts and low rent and rates to
business that moved into these areas.

RISING EMPLOYMENT = each person got LESS benefit but Gov. was still PAYING OUT MORE

Money from special areas act was TOO LITTLE and TOO POORLY DISTRIBUTED

Some places…

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HISTORY

BUT there was TOO LITTLE MONEY ALLOWED in the special areas act.
1936: regular debates in parliament about the need for more funding and the problems
of deciding where and how the money was to be raised and spent and how
industries could be encouraged to move into these…

Page 5

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HISTORY

Sometimes they slept in halls, schools or churches, at other times they slept in the workhouse
­ the last resort of the poor.



THE IMPACT:

Gov. Reaction:

The crusade reached London on Saturday 31st October. Stanley Baldwin REFUSED TO SEE
Ellen Wilkinson and accept the petition.
The cabinet (the…

Page 6

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HISTORY


Key Topic 2: Britain alone
GOING TO WAR
1st September 1939 ­ Germany invaded POLAND.

Britain and France tried to avoid war by APPEASEMENT (accepting that GERMANY HAD BROKEN
THE T.OF.V. TERMS) and by accepting its invasion of Czechoslovakia.

Germany invaded Poland = APPEASEMENT NOT WORKING = Britain and…

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HISTORY

German troops moved in and occupied the area, under the cover of artillery fire
The planes and tanks moved onto the next target, leaving the troops to occupy the
captured area and put down all resistance.

This was risky, but it gave the troops in the countries under attack…

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HISTORY

OPERATION DYNAMO began on 26th may
Gov. Asked owners of SMALL BOATS TO FERRY SOLDIERS to the big ships
By May 29th, about 300 boats were doing this. The big boats were shuttled from Dunkirk to
Britain until 4th June
About 20,000 ­ 30,000 troops were estimated, the final…

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HISTORY



WHY DID BRITAIN WIN????

July 1940 ­ RAF had 640 fighter planes. The German Luftwaffe had 2600 bombers and
fighter planes within striking distance of Britain, in occupied Europe.
= BRITAIN HAD LESS PLANES
The Germans were cocky and thought that the RAF would soon be wiped out, but…

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HISTORY



PREPARING FOR INVASION:

14th may 1940 ­ the WAR MINISTER, Anthony Eden, asked for volunteers for a LOCAL
DEFENCE FORCE (LDF).
There were 250,000 volunteers on the first day.
August: LDF had about 1 million members and was renamed the Home Guard.
It took up to early 1941 to…

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