Unit 3B: War & the Transformation of British Society 1931-51 - FACTMAP

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  • Unit 3B: War & the Transformation of British Society 1931-51 - FACTMAP
    • Key Topic 1: The Impact of the Depression
      • National Insurance set up in 1911 for the unemployment fund - would last up to 15 weeks
      • November 1918 - unemployment scheme set up (the dole)
      • 1929 - 1.5 million unemployed
      • Newer industries were located more in the south/west
      • 1930's - unemployment highest in shipbuilding, coal mining, & cotton production
        • 62% of shipbuilders were unemployed
      • 1929 - Labour came into power & made huge spending cuts (government workers 10 - 15%)
      • The means test was introduced in 1931
      • 1934 Unemployment act - no means test but only lasted 15 weeks
      • Special Areas act 2m given to Scotland, Tyneside, Cumberland, & South Wales
      • Jarrow - unemployment rate 64% (Palmers shipyard closed in 1934)
      • Jarrow march - 291 miles in 22 stages with petition with over 1000 signatures
    • Key Topic 2: Britain at War 1939 - 45
      • 3rd September - Britain & France declare war on Germany
      • Winston Churchill, MP who led the army, became Prime Minister in 1940
      • Blitzkrieg 1940 April - Germany invades Norway & Denmark
      • Dunkirk Operation Dynamo - 26th May 1940
      • May 1929 - 300 ships came to help
      • 20,000 - 30,000 troops brought back from Dunkirk
      • The Battle of Britain - battle between Luftwaffe & RAF:
        • 10th July - 7th August: Luftwaffe attacks on the British coast, especially RAF stations
        • 8th August - 6th September: Luftwaffe attacks British Airfield
        • 7th - 15th September: Luftwaffe, thinking the RAF defeated, attacked London
        • 15th September - Luftwaffe defeated - Hitler calls off Operation Sealion
      • D-Day - 17th December 1941 - Japanese allies at Germany bomb the US Naval base at Pearl Harbour
      • Operation Overlord set up on Normandy Beaches 5/6th June
    • Key Topic 3: The homefront 1939 - 45
      • Leaflet issued " some things you should know if war shall come"
      • The government told councils to sort building shelters as early as 1935
      • Air raid precaution service set up in 1937 with voluntary wardens
      • Councils built shelters that could hold up to 50 people
      • Anderson shelters issued from 1939 onward
      • May 1940 - war Minister Anthony Eden asks for volunteers for the local defence force
        • Expected 150,000 on first day, ended up with 250,000
          • 1 million strong by August
      • Ist September - evacuation starts - 3 million evacuated within first 4 days
      • Rationing act 1940 & clothes rationed 1941
      • Blitz - name given to Luftwaffe bombing Britain from 7th September 1940 - 41& bombed over 16 countries
      • Over 43,000 civilians killed & over 2 million made homeless
      • Survey 12th September for Londoners - 32% got less then 4 hours sleep & 31% got none at all
      • 8th November - RAF bombs Munion & 400 Luftwaffe bombers bomb coventry
      • All women aged 20 or older had to register for war work at a labour exchange
    • Key Topic 4: Labour in Power 1945 - 52
      • The Beverage Report - 1942
      • General election 1945
      • Family allowance set up in 1945 - 5 shillings a week for each child after the first
      • Unemployment benefit lasted 6 weeks but sickness benefit had no time limit
      • Aneurin Bevan, minister of health, set up the NHS in 1946
      • Costly - 8.5 million people received dental treatment & 6.25 spectacles provided & costed £400 million in the first yeat
      • 1952 - NHS charges for prescriptions & Bevan resigns as minister of health in protest
      • New towns act of 1946 - 30 miles away of other tons & populations of 50,000
      • Idleness - government manages to achieve full employment by 1950

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