GCSE Edexcel History B Unit 1A: Medicine Through Time

GCSE Edexcel History B Unit 1A: Medicine Through Time notes

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In pre-historic times, there was a lack of government which meant that there was no planning
intervention or funding of medicine.

The used primitive tools, such as; flints and arrow heads.

There was no education, no written language, no records of any prior knowledge of medicine and
skills and ideas…

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Priest Physicians, Priest Magicians, Women, Specialist Doctors treated the sick, few Peseshets,
women doctors, were known.

They had some knowledge of the heart, liver, lungs, brain, pulse and blood.

They believed that the body contained channels and blockages caused illnesses but they didn't know
how the parts of the body…

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In Ancient Rome Galen expanded on Hippocrates and came up with the Theory of Opposites. He said
that if someone is ill in spring they must remove some blood because they have too much inside

The living conditions improved during the latter half of the Middle Ages. Over-population was…

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used the ideas of Galen and Hippocrates, did not have a cure for the Black Death; the differences
include: they had good libraries, more hospitals and caring for the sick was an important part of their
faith. Avicenna is a well-known individual who wrote many books on medicine which were…

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Paré (1510-1590) worked as an army surgeon and published books. His oil supply ran out so he had
to come up with another way to cauterise wounds ­ he used a combination of egg yolk, oil of roses
and turpentine. He decided to tie up arteries (ligatures) and bandage wounds.…

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During WWII, the National Blood Transfusions Service was set up. The immediate effect was that
thousands of soldiers received blood on the battlefield

In 1798, Edward Jenner developed a vaccine for smallpox by using cowpox; because of this a way
had been found to prevent the spread of infectious disease.…

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worst for working classes in cities who lived in crowded conditions, especially Liverpool, and best for
upper/middle classes in the country. He realised that if they were healthier, they would be more

In 1842, the report on sanitary conditions of the labouring population produced.

In 1848, Public Health Act…

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In 1847, Simpson discovered that chloroform was very effective for child birth; however, he faced
huge opposition.

In 1848 Hannah Greener, a 15 year-old girl, died as result of chloroform.

In 1853, the opposition was overcome when Queen Victoria used it when giving birth to Prince

Many surgeons didn't…

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In the 1870s, designated rooms were now used for surgeries (theatres), a small audience was
allowed. Surgeons started wear rubber gloves, hats and masks.

In 1890, William Halstead recommended that rubber gloves were to be worn during surgery; this
was the beginning of aseptic surgery.

In the 1890s, Koch believed…

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Urbanisation meant that cities and town were overcrowded. There was a lack of sewage system,
fresh water supply and drainage in towns. The government did not help or develop Public Health
because they did not believe it was their duty to (laissez-faire) and they were reluctant to spend rate


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