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Coastal Flooding- The Maldives
Economic: Social:
· Loss of tourism- largest industry in the · Houses damaged/destroyed- make
maldives, airport can't work, cut off entire communities homeless
from international tourists, massively · Less freshwater available- already low,
reduce income supplies polluted by sea water, some
· Disrupted fishing industry- fish largest islands would have to rely on rainwater
export, flooding damage fish processing or build expensive desalination plants
plants, reduce fish exports and countries Political:
income · Maldivian government had to borrow
$60 million from the Japanese
Environmental: government to build a 3 metre high sea
· Loss of beaches- wears away beaches at wall around the capital city of Male.
a rapid rate, destroys habitats, exposes · Changes to environmental policies-
land behind beaches to effects pledged to become carbon neutral so
· Loss of soil- already shallow (about they don't contribute to global warming,
20cm), wash away soil, most plants cant encouraging other governments to do
grow the same
· Changes to long-term plans- thinking
about buying land in other countries and
moving Maldivians there…read more

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Coastal Erosion- Holderness
Facts: Reasons for erosion:
· 61km long from Flamborough Head to · Easily eroded rock type- boulder clay,
Spurn head likely to slump when wet, cliffs collapse
· Average rate of erosion is 1.8 metres per · Naturally narrow beaches- less
year protection, don't reduce erosive power of
waves
Social impacts: · People worsening situation- groynes at
· Homes near cliffs like at Skipsea, risk of Mappleton stop material moving down
collapsing into sea the coast, narrow beaches
· Property prices, fallen sharply for houses · Powerful waves- faces prevailing wind,
along coast brings waves from Arctic Ocean, highly
· Accessibility affected, roads on cliff tops erosive waves
at risk of collapsing like Southfield Lane
from Skipsea to Ulrome closed
Environmental impacts:
· Businesses at risk, people lose jobs,
· Some SSSIs are threatened- Lagoons near
Seaside Caravan Park at Ulrome losing
Easington are part of an SSSI, seperated
about 10 pitches per year
from sea by a narrow strip of sand and
· Gas terminal at Easington only 25m from
shingle, if eroded Lagoons connected to
cliff edge, supplies 25% of Britain's gas
2 sea, destroyed
· 80 000m of farmland lost a year, effect
on farmers' livelihoods…read more

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Coastal Management- Holderness
11.4km of Holderness coastline has been
protected by hard engineering. Problems:
· Cowden Farm at risk of collapsing into
sea because of groynes further up the
Management:
coast creating narrower beaches
· Bridlington protected by 4.7km long sea
· Risk of flooding in the Humber Estuary
wall and wooden groynes
increased, less material to slow down
· The village at Hornsea is protected by
flood water because less material is
sea wall, wooden groynes and rock
transported south as less is eroded from
armour
the coast
· Two rock groynes costing £2 million
· Rate of coastal retreat at Lincolnshire
were built in 1991 at Mappleton to
Coast increased, less new material added
protect the village and coastal road
· Spurn head at risk of erosion, less
· Withernsea has groynes and a sea wall,
material being added
rock armour in front of wall after
· Bays forming between protected areas ,
damaged in 1992 storm
headlands eroded more heavily, more
· Eastern side of Spurn Head protected by
expensive to maintain
groynes and rock armour, protects
Humber Estuary behind…read more

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Coastal Habitat- Studland Bay
· Dorset, south west of England Management:
· Sandy beaches with sand dunes and · People walk across sand dunes, cause
heathland behind them erosion- 1) boardwalks to guide people
· Heathland is a SSSI and nature reserve over (sand beneath protected) 2) some
fenced off and marram grass planted to
Wildlife: give them a chance to recover and stabilise
· Reptiles- adders, grass snakes, sand lizards themselves 3) signs put up to educate
· Birds- dartford warblers, shelducks, grebes visitors why the dunes are important and
· Fish- seahorses how to use them without damaging them
· Plants- marram grass, lyme grass, heather · Boat anchors destroy seagrass where
seahorses live- seahorses protected by
Adapted:
law, boat owners told not to damage
· Marram grass- folded leaves, reduce water
loss, long roots, take up water seagrass
· Lyme grass- waxy leaves, reduce water loss · Heathland damaged by fires (2008 fire
· Grebes- feet far back on body, more destroyed 6 acres)- National Trust
streamlined, help dive in water educates visitors on the dangers of causing
· Snakes- thick, scaly skin, reduce water loss fires, fire beaters provided to extinguish
flames…read more

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