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Introduction
The Coastal Zone (Coasts Topic)
Third Unit Studied
Physical Topic
Examined As Unit 7 In Paper 1 (Physical
Geography)
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Slide 3

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Contents
Page Topic
4 Sub-Aerial Processes
5 Waves
6 Coastal Erosion
8 Coastal Transportation
9 Coastal Deposition
10 Coastal Flooding
11 Coastal Management
14 Salt Marshes
16 Glossary
19 Summary
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Sub-Aerial Processes
Land Based Processes:
Weathering - the weakening of rock surfaces.
Physical / Mechanical (Freeze-Thaw = Cold! &
Onion Skin / Exfoliation = Hot!)
Biological (plants, sea-life etc.)
Chemical (acidity, salt etc.)
Mass-Movement - the downhill movement of
material due to gravity.
Rockfall - fragments of rock break away from cliff
face, often due to physical / mechanical
weathering.
Landslide - blocks of rock slide downhill.
Mudflow - saturated soil / weak rock flows down a
slope.
Rotational Slip - saturated soil / weak rock `slumps'
along a curved surface.
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Waves
There are two types of waves:
Constructive (Depositional) Destructive (Eroding)
Infrequent Frequent
Breaks Gently `Lash' The Cliff
Calm Weather Stormy Weather
The direction of the waves is influenced by
the wind.
In the UK, the prevailing wind is south-westerly.
The size is influenced by wind strength and
fetch.
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Coastal Erosion
The coastline is weakened by sub-aerial
weathering processes and is eroded by
the four types of erosion.
This results in:
Cliffs:
Headlands & Bays - where alternating bands
of rock exist:
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