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Waves ­ how formed, how do they affect the coast

Waves are caused by friction between the wind and water causing the water to swell.

The size and energy of a wave is influenced by:

how long the wind has been blowing
the strength of the wind
how far the…

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Coastal Processes ­ weathering:

when rocks and surface materials are broken down through the actions of the atmosphere we call it
weathering. weathering weakens rocks at the coast and makes them more likely to be affected by
mass movement and erosion

Chemical: when weak acids for example rain dissolves the…

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Solution: Minerals are dissolved in sea water and carried in solution. The load is not visible. Load can
come from cliffs made from chalk or limestone, and calcium carbonate is carried along in solution.

Longshore Drift :

The continual swash and backwash that carries material along the coast is called…

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5. The process repeats and the cliff continues to retreat

Wave cut platforms.

Wave cut platforms are the platforms at the bottom of a wave cut platform, formed during cliff

Caves, arches and stacks

Hydraulic action is the principle process taking place here. The water works is way in…

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5. These plants trap more sediment and contribute organic matter when they die. These
processes help the salty marsh to grow.

6. Eventually the salt marsh will grow further and an even more complex set of plants will
colonise the area, until the climax community of alder and ash trees…

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Case Study: Coastal Flooding

Bangladesh (LEDC):

Bangladesh is an LEDC. The land is
densely populated. Most of the land
forms a delta from three main rivers
- Ganges, Brahmaputra and
Twenty-five per cent of Bangladesh
is less than 1 metre above sea level.
Flooding is an annual event as…

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o Schools, hospitals and trains destroyed

Rising sea level ­ causes and consequences of sea level rise.

The sea level is rising due to global warming causing the polar ice caps to melt. This means there is
more water, which would mean sea levels could rise significantly.

Many parts of…

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Can be expensive to obtain and transport
the boulders.

Soft engineering (Beach nourishment, Dune regeneration, Marsh creation, Managed retreat)

Beach management

This replaces beach or cliff material that has been removed by erosion or longshore drift.

The main advantage is that beaches are a natural defence against erosion and…




very helpful




Mr A Gibson


These are great for AQA or any other awarding body because they cover all the main points that you will find in the specification relating to coasts. There are some good examples too and also the diagrams used are clear and accurate. A great addition to your revision resources.



  1. have you ever been to Hawkshead


8/8 it was gr8






This so helpful, thank you!

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