GCSE Chemistry notes

These are randomly assorted... contain ions, elements, limestone, chemical change kinetic theory etc.

Based on CCEA

Emma

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  • Created on: 11-04-10 19:15
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CCEA
Chemistry
Higher Tier
Revision Yr.
11
Hazar
d Symbol
s
OXI
D I
ZING
May
cat
ch f
ir
e i
n ai
r.
E.
G .
Pot
assi
um
Maganat
e (
V I
I)
,
Bleachi
ng
Powder
.
CORROSI
VE
At
tack
and
dest
roy
li
vi
ng t
issue
incl
uding
eyes
and ski
n.
E.G.
Concent
rat
ed Sul
phuric
Aci
d ,
Concent
rat
ed Sodium
Hydroxi
de.
RADIOACTI
VE
HARMFUL
Si
mil
ar
to
toxi
c but
not
as
har
mful
.
E.G.
Iodi
ne,
Et
hanol
.
I
R RI
TANT
Are
not
corrosi
ve
but
can
causer
eddeni
ng
or
bli
ster
ing
to
ski
n.
E.G.
Iodi
ne
Sol
uti
on,
Di
lut
e
Sul
p hur
ic
Acid.
TOXI
C
Can
cause
death
if
swal
lowed,
i
nhaled
or
absor
bed t
hrough
ski
n .
E.
G .
Chl
ori
ne, Sul
phur
Dioxode.
HIGHLY
FLAMMABLE
Cat
ch
fi
re
easi
l
y.
E.G.
Pet
rol
,
Ethanol
.
EXPLOSI
VE
Li
kel
y t
o expl
ode.
E.
G .
Ammoni
um
C hl
ori
de.

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Page 2

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Har
mful
=
Insi
de
Body.
I
rr
it
ant
=
O ut
side
body.
St
ates
of
Mat
ter
Matt
e r
i
s somethi
ng
that
occupi
es space and
has mass.
The t
hree st
ates
of
ma tt
er
are
sol
ids,
l
iqui
ds and gases.…read more

Page 3

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Fi
xed Takes
volume
of
cont
ainer
Vol
ume Fi
xed
Fl
ow Does not
f
low,
r
igi
d Fl
ow s Fl
ows easi
l
y
Compr
essi
bil
i
ty Cannot
be Can be
co mpr
essed Can
be compr
essed
compressed sl
i
g ht
ly.…read more

Page 4

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Melt
ing
P oi
nt
is
the
temper
atur
e
at
which
a sol
id
changes
to
a
l
iqui
d.
Boi
li
ng Poi
nt
is
the
t
emp er
ature
at
w hi
ch a
li
qui
d
changes
to
a gas.
Evaprat
ion
is
the
change of
st
ate
fr
o m a
li
quid
to
a gas
bel
ow
boil
ing
point
.…read more

Page 5

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Condensi
ng
Wh en a
gas i
s cooled,
the
part
icl
es l
ose heat
a nd
ha ve
l
ess energy and
so
have l
e ss
move ment.
The
parti
cl
e s
come
cl
oser t
oge t
her as
the gas
cool
s, t
he f
o r
ces of
att
racti
on
have gr
e at
er ef
fect
unti
l
the
part
icl
es of
t
h e
ga s
for
m i
nto
a
l
iqui
d.…read more

Page 6

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Heat
ing
and
C ool
ing
graphs
1,
when a
su bst
ance i
s melt
ing
or
boi
li
ng,
a l
l
the
heat
en er
gy
suppl
ied
is
used
for
br
ea ki
ng
bonds
rather
than
rai
sing
the
t
emp er
a t
ure,
hence t
he
f
lat
spots
on heati
ng gr
ap hs.
(
same
w i
th
coo l
i
n g
graphs).…read more

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Ener
gy
Mot
ion
Arr
angement
Proxi
mit
y
At
tr
act
ion
PRESSURE,
VO LUME
AND
TEMPERATUR E
CALCULATI
O NS
The
vol
ume
of
a gas
depends
on
it
s t
emper
atur
e and
pressur
e.
An
incr
ease i
n t
he t
emp er
a t
ure of
a
ga s
w i
l
l
incr
ea se
it
s vol
ume.…read more

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V2=0.
25
x 400
/
5 =
20
V
= 20cm3
Uni
ts
Usef
ul
ter
ms
El
eme nts
canno t
be
broken
down i
nto
an yt
hing
simpl
er by
chemi
ca l
mean s.
Are
made
up
of
onl
y one t
ype of
atom.
At
oms i
s t
he
sma l
lest
par
t
of
an
el
ement
,
whi
ch
ret
ains
hte
proper
tys
of
an
element
and
takes
par
t
in
chemical
change.…read more

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Mass number
i
s t
he number of
pr
otons
and
neutrons
in
the
nucl
eus.
Neut
rons
= mass
number
­
at
omic
numb er
.
I
sostopes
are at
oms of
t
he
same el
eme nt,
whi
ch
have t
he
same at
omo c number
but
di
ff
erent
ma ss
numbers.
Thi
s means t
hey
have t
he
same number
of
prot
ons but
di
ff
erent
numbers
of
elect
rons.
When
drawi
ng
E.S.…read more

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Val
en ci
es al
low f
ormulae
to be
wri
tt
en even when i
ons are
not
i
nvolved.
I
t
b ecomes a
simple
matt
er of
swapping
the
val
encies
and
if
necessar
y
si
mp l
if
ying
to
w r
it
e a
formula.…read more

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