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History of Periodic Table
Newland Mendeleev
· Arranged elements with law · Put elements in order of
of octaves atomic mass
· Work was ignored because · Left gaps- led to
there was inconsistency undiscovered elements
· Mixed up metals & non- · Similar properties in same
metals vertical groups
· Left no gaps
*…read more

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Periodic table is based on electronic structure
· Elements in same group have similar properties
· This is because atoms have same number of
electrons in outer shell
· Larger atoms lose electrons more easily
· Larger atoms gain electrons less easily
· This is because the outer electrons are further
away from the nucleus
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Group 1 (Alkali Metals)
Are very reactive (vigorously)
Low melting + boiling point
Keen to lose 1 outer electron = 1+ ion
Atoms are big and they have higher density
Lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium + francium
Ionic compounds are formed (DON'T SHARE)
Many have to be stored in oil- too reactive
Elements form hydroxide solution
Their hydroxides dissolve sin water to give
Alkaline solutions
Lithium etc produce hydrogen gas when reacted in H20
Silvery solids *…read more

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Group 7 (The Halogens)
High melting + boiling point
Are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine
Less reactive
Oionic and covalent bonding (form 1- ions)
Generally form molecules that are diatomic (2 pairs of atoms)
Elements that are more reactive DISPLACE less reactive ones
Non-metals with coloured vapours
Salt is formed when reacted with metals
Non-metals with coloured vapours:
­ Fluorine: very reactive, poisonous yellow gas
­ Chlorine: fairly reactive, poisonous dense green gas
­ Bromine: dense, poisonous red-brown volatile liquid
­ Iodine: dark grey crystalline solid or purple vapour
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The Transition Elements
Transition elements have higher melting points except Mercury
Reactivity is less
Are good conductors of heat + electricity
Normally have more than one ion e.g. Fe², Cr³
Stronger and harder
Involves Group 2 and 3
Their elements + compounds make good catalysts
Is high in density
Oxygen or H2O doesn't react vigorously with it
Normally have colourful compounds
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