GCSE C7 Summary

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Section One Summary ­ The chemistry of
carbon compounds
Alkanes
A hydrocarbon is a compound of hydrogen and carbon only. Ethane (C2H4) is an
example of a hydrocarbon.
The structural formula and the molecular formula of Methane, Ethane,
Propane and Butane are on attached separate paper.
An alkane burning in air:
Methane + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water
CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O
Alkanes are unreactive to aqueous reagents because the C-C and C-H bonds in the
molecules are unreactive.
Alcohols
The functional group of an alcohol is O-H
The structural and molecular formula of Methanol and Ethanol are attached
on separate paper.
Methanol: 1) Fuel ­ 2CH3OH + 3O2
2) Industrial feedback ­ To make ethanoic acid
Ethanol: 1) Paints and coatings
2) Nail varnish remover
The O-H part of the alcohol gives it the tendency to cling together.
Propanol + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water
Water Methanol Ethanol

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Does the chemical A colourless Methanol reacts Ethanol reacts with
react with sodium? solution is formed, with sodium and sodium to create a
If yes, what are the consisting of creates a clear flame. clear flame. It
names of the strongly alkalic It produces Sodium produces Sodium
products? sodium hydroxide methoxide. ethoxide.
and hydrogen gas.
Sodium metal is
heated and may
ignite and burn with
a characteristic
orange flame.…read more

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The acid in vinegar is Acetic acid.
Magnesium + ethanoic acid Magnesium ethanoate + hydrogen
Potassium hydroxide + ethanoic acid Potassium ethanoate + water
Copper + carbonate + ethanoic acid Copper ethanoate + carbon dioxide +
water
Calcium + ethonic acid --> calcium ethanoate
The reaction between ethanoic acid and sodium hydroxide forms Sodium acetate and
Water.
(CH3COOH + NaOH -----> CH3COONa + H2O)
Esters
An ester has the functional group COOC.…read more

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Forming an ester in a laboratory - Carboxylic acids and alcohols are often warmed
together in the presence of a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid in order to
observe the smell of the esters formed.
Fats are made of organic compounds including hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. Fats
are generally esters of glycerols and fatty acids.
Saturated fats: Saturated fats are ones where all of the bonds are single. The
molecule has as much hydrogen as it can take.…read more

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