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Atoms and The Periodic Table
All substances are made up of atoms. Atoms have a small
nucleus surrounded by electrons. Two or more atoms bonded
together are called a molecule. Elements contain only one type
of atom. Compounds are when two or more atoms are
chemically bonded.

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Chemistry -Limestone
Limestone is formed from sea shells. It is quarried out of the ground. It is great for making
into blocks for building with and road surfacing.
Powered limestone is heated in a kiln with powered clay to make cement.
Cement can be mixed with sand and water to…

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Digging limestone out of the ground can cause environmental problems
1) It makes ugly holes which permanently change the landscape
2) The quarrying process makes a lot of noise and dust
3) Quarrying destroys the habitats of animals and plants
4) The limestone needs to be transported away ­…

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Properties of Metal

All metals have the same basic properties. These are due to the special type of bonding in
metals. These special bonds allow the outer electrons of each atom to move freely. This
creates a sea of free electrons throughout the metal. This includes their conduction to

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alloys are called shape memory alloys. When deformed they return to their original shape.
Used in medicine and dentistry.
Transition metals have properties that make them useful for building and making

Copper is a very useful transition metal because of its high conductivity.
We extract copper from copper ore.…

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it is a mixture, the different hydrocarbons molecules aren't chemically bonded to one
another. This means that crude oil can be split up into its separate fractions by fractional
distillation and you are left with compounds with similar boiling points.

Crude oil is mostly Alkanes. Alkanes have single bonds that…

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Ethene makes ethanol. Phosphoric acid is used as a catalyst. It makes plastic bags e.t.c
Propene is very strong and tough. It makes milk crates, rope e.t.c

Thermosoftening Plastics- when we cool plastics, the intermolecular force (force between
molecules) brings the polymer molecules back together, the plastic hardens again.

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Emulsions are made up of lots of droplets of one liquid suspended in another liquid
(droplets of oil spread throughout the water). Egg yolks stop the oil and water form
separating out. We call these substances emulsifiers.
To make ice cream we need a lot of air to beat it…

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3. The mantle is the widest section of the Earth. The mantle is made up of semi-molten
rock called magma. In the upper parts of the mantle the rock is hard, but lower down
the rock is soft and beginning to melt.
4. The crust is the outer layer of…


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