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Osmosis: The net movement of water molecules across a semi-permeable membrane from a region of high water concentration to a region of low
water concentration
-Is a type of Diffusion=Passive movement of water particles from a high to low concentration

Partially Permeable Membrane:
-Only water molecules can pass through…

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-Large Surface Area=Lots of substance can be diffused
-Animals have lots of blood vessels=Quick exchange
-Gas Exchange= Animals have ventilated areas

Leaf: Gas Exchange
-Carbon Dioxide=Diffuses into air spaces
-Exchange Surface=Underneath leaf covered in stomata to let carbon dioxide in, water and oxygen out
-Stomata size controlled by Guard…

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The Lungs: Transfer oxygen to blood and remove waste carbon dioxide
-Contain air sacs called ALVEOLI




-Alveoli are specialised to maximise gas diffusion
-They have a big surface area, moist lining, thin walls and good blood supply

Small Intestine: Covered in tiny PROJECTIONS called VILLI
-Increase surface area to…

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-Hairs which give plant a bigger surface area from which nutrients and water from the soil are absorbed
-Have a higher concentration of minerals than soil
-Active transport allows plants to absorb minerals from dilute solutions

The Gut:
-When concentration of nutrients and amino acids in the gut is…

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Ventilation: The movement of air into and out of the lungs
- Breathing In:
1)Intercostal Muscles and Diaphragm muscles contract
2)Thorax volume increases
3)Muscles between ribs pull ribcage and sternum up and out
4)This decreases pressure, drawing air in

-Breathing Out:
1)Intercostal and Diaphragm muscles relax
2)Thorax volume decreases…

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Xylem Tubes: Take Up Water
--Consist of DEAD CELLS joined up with no walls in between
-Carry water and minerals from roots to stem and leaves

Transpiration: Loss of water in plants
1)Caused by evaporation and diffusion of water from leaves
2)Creating shortage of water in leaves
4) More…

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-More water inside plant then outside Diffusion of water to outside via stomata

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