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Osmosis: The net movement of water molecules across a semi-permeable membrane from a region of high water concentration to a region of low
water concentration
-Is a type of Diffusion=Passive movement of water particles from a high to low concentration
Partially Permeable Membrane:
-Only water molecules can pass through both sides due to random water movement
-Sucrose cannot pass through Molecules too big
-Steady net movement of water particles will always occur to dilute sucrose solution because concentration there is low
-Surrounded by Tissue…read more

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Large Surface Area=Lots of substance can be diffused
-Animals have lots of blood vessels=Quick exchange
-Gas Exchange= Animals have ventilated areas
Leaf: Gas Exchange
-Carbon Dioxide=Diffuses into air spaces
-Exchange Surface=Underneath leaf covered in stomata to let carbon dioxide in, water and oxygen out
-Stomata size controlled by Guard Cells
-Flat Shape=Thin
-Air Spaces=Increases surface area
-Concentration of water is low outside Evaporation occurs transporting water to the ouside…read more

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The Lungs: Transfer oxygen to blood and remove waste carbon dioxide
-Contain air sacs called ALVEOLI
-Alveoli are specialised to maximise gas diffusion
-They have a big surface area, moist lining, thin walls and good blood supply
Small Intestine: Covered in tiny PROJECTIONS called VILLI
-Increase surface area to increase absorption of digested food
-Thin with a single layer of surface cells
-Cell wall is 1 cell thick
-Have a good blood supply for fast absorption
Active Transport: Allows diffusion to occur against a concentration…read more

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Hairs which give plant a bigger surface area from which nutrients and water from the soil are absorbed
-Have a higher concentration of minerals than soil
-Active transport allows plants to absorb minerals from dilute solutions
The Gut:
-When concentration of nutrients and amino acids in the gut is high they diffuse naturally into the blood
-When there is a low concentration of nutrients and amino acids in the gut active transport occurs allowing nutrients to be taken into the blood
The Breathing System:…read more

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Ventilation: The movement of air into and out of the lungs
- Breathing In:
1)Intercostal Muscles and Diaphragm muscles contract
2)Thorax volume increases
3)Muscles between ribs pull ribcage and sternum up and out
4)This decreases pressure, drawing air in
-Breathing Out:
1)Intercostal and Diaphragm muscles relax
2)Thorax volume decreases
3)Ribs and sternum drop in and down
4)This increases pressure, forcing air out
Artificial Ventilators:
-Help people who are under general anaesthetic, had lung injury or disease
-Old ventilators restricted lower bodily blood flow.…read more

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Xylem Tubes: Take Up Water
--Consist of DEAD CELLS joined up with no walls in between
-Carry water and minerals from roots to stem and leaves
Transpiration: Loss of water in plants
1)Caused by evaporation and diffusion of water from leaves
2)Creating shortage of water in leaves
4) More water is sucked up from roots and XYLEM VESSELS
-Creating a constant TRANSPIRATION STREAM of water
-This is a side effect of the way the leaves are adapted for photosynthesis.…read more

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More water inside plant then outside Diffusion of water to outside via stomata…read more

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