GCSE Biology complete revision notes

This is the GCSE biology revision notes designed especially for AQA but I am assuming you could use it for other boards just check it with the specification.

Good luck revising, my exam was on Monday 21st May 2012. 

I got an A so they must have helped.

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Cel
ls
All
an i
ma l
s
and plan t
s are ma de up of
cell
s.
They al
l
co ntai
n :
nucleus,
cytopl
asm,
cell
me mb r
ane ,
mit
o c h ondri
a and ri
b oso me s.
Yo u
h ave
to
b e
able
to
d r
aw
an d
label
an animal
ce l
l
or
a plant
cell
.
A
plant
cel
l
has a
c oup l
e mo r
e
fe at
u res:
cel
l wa l
l
, per
ma nent
vacuo l
e
a nd chl
oroplast
s. They al
l
have functi
ons and
t
he se
a re di
splayed i
n the t
a bl
e b el
ow .
Name Description
Nucleus Thi
s conta i
ns
the cel
l'
s geneti
c materi
als
(D NA) and
co nt
rol
s
t
he cell
's acti
vit
ies.
Cytoplasm Thi
s i
s
w he r
e
mo st
of
the chemical
processe s
take
place,
it
i
s
t
he base
o f
the cel
l
and
control
led
b y
enzyme s.
Cell membrane Thi
s controls t
he
mo veme nt
of
sub st
ances
in
an d
out of
t
he
cel
l.
Mitochondria Thi
s i
s
w he r
e
mo st
energy i
s r
e l
eased
by respi
rati
on.
Ribosomes Thi
s i
s
w he r
e
protei
n synthesi
s occurs wh ere
protei
n i
s
made .
Permanent vacuole Thi
s i
s
fi
ll
e d wit
h cel
l
sa p
(ma de of
mo st
ly
w at
e r
and
di
ssolved
su gars)
to
ma ke t
he
cell
t
urgid.
Cell wall Thi
s i
s
ma de of
cell
ulose
(ri
gid
layer)
and thi
s support
s and
st
rengthe ns t
h e
cell
Chloroplasts Thi
s conta i
ns
chlorophyl
l
an d
ab sor
bs sunli
gh t
f
or
phot
o synthes i
s.
The se are
u sed f
or regu l
ar cel
ls
but
cell
s t
hat
requi
re a certain
functi
on are
spe ci
ali
sed.
Spe cia l
ised cel
ls:
Name Function
Sperm cell Thi
s has a
tail
which
h el
ps i
t
sw i
m.
Function: to fertilise the egg The `
he ad'
co ntai
ns t
he
nucleus which
ha s
23
chromo some s.
I
t
also has
en zyme s
w hi
ch help
digest
the egg cel
ls
memb ran e.
Egg cell The egg ce l
l
is
surrounded in
nutri
ents
w hich
w i
ll
hel
p develop
t
he emb ryo .
I
t
also has
a nucleus which
co nt
ains
2 3
chromo some s.
Red blood cell I
t
has no
n ucleus so
there
is
mo re space
for haemo gl
obin.
Function: to drop off oxygen There i
s a con cave
sha pe
a nd
thi
s all
ow s
mo re
o xygen
to be
absorbed
mo r
e eff
ici
entl
y.
Nerve cell I
t
contains
ma ny of
the necessi
ti
e s
of
an
anima l
cel
l:
nucl
e us,
cyt
oplasm an d
cell
me mbrane .
The nerve
ce l
l
also
has an axon (
b ody)
. Recep t
ors
w hi
ch are
used
to pick up me ssages.
I
nsulati
on (
co at
ing)
to st
op the
me ssage getti
ng l
ost.
Cilia I
t
has mic roscopic
h ai
rs
w hi
ch w af
t
back and
fort
h any
d i
rt
Function: to line the airways et
c.
ba ck to
the nose and mo ut
h. I
t
also
p r
od uces
mu cus t
o
t
rap anything to
stop i
t
gett
ing i
nto t
he l
un gs.
Muscle cell The st
ruc t
u r
e
is
to
a l
l
o w t
he mu scl
e t
o
mo ve.
T her
e are
a l
so
l
ots
of mitoch ondri
a f
or r
eleasing
e ner
g y
fr
o m respi
rat
ion.
Root hair cell Thi
s i
s
on ly
in
p l
ants.
They are no
chloropl
a st
s l
ike
no r
ma l
Function: to absorb water pl
ant
c el
ls be cause
it
i
s unde r
ground.
So
they ar
e
not
n eeded
because p hotosynthesi
s doesn't
occur
u nderground (
no
sunl
ight
a vail
a bl
e)
a nd
they need mo r
e space to
abso r
b water.
Bethany Cunningham AQA Biology revision notes (Double and triple award) 21st May 2012

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There
is
also
a
lar
ge r
sur
face ar
ea wh i
ch i
s so
mo r
e
w at
er
is
col
lect
ed.
White blood cell Thi
s has a
dif
ferent
nucl
e us
fr
om r
egu l
ar
anima l
cel
ls
and t
his
i
s because i
t
nee ds
to
noti
ce di
ffer
en t
f
orei
g n
bodies.…read more

Page 3

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T he
vil
l
i are
a l
so suit
ab l
e f
or di
ff
usion
b ecause of
t
he
same
p r
inci
ples
w i
th
the shape of
t
he
vil
l
i
there
is
a
la r
ge
surface ar ea which wi
ll
ma ke
dif
fusi
on
occur qui
cker.…read more

Page 4

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Pat
hway
of
the
hear
t t
he
movement
of
Oxygen
in
the
blood
Enzymes
E n zyme s a r
e biol
ogical
cat
a l
ysts,
t
his
me ans that
t
h ey
spee d
up
a r
e act
ion
w i
thout
cha ngi
ng. They
a r
e
ma de of
st
r uct
u r
es of
prot
e i
ns.
A c ti
ve si
te is
w here
the molecules
get
d i
gested.…read more

Page 5

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Page 6

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C6H12O6 >
6CO2 +
6H2O +
ener
gy.
Glucose
and
oxygen
>
C ar
bon
D i
oxi
de
+ Wat
er
+ ener
gy.
[
TRIPLE
AWARD]
Anaer
obi
c r
espi
rat
ion
is
how t
he
body
makes
ener
gy
w i
thout
oxygen.…read more

Page 7

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Homeost
asi
s
T h is i
s
ke eping
the
inter
na l
envi
ronme nt
of
o ur
body t
h e
same .
1.T empe r
ature
­ using
the ski
n
2.C O2
level
s ­
lungs
3.U r
e a
­ ki
dn eys
4.I ons ­
kidneys
5.Wa ter
­ ki
dn eys
6.G l
uco se pancreas
T e mp erature n ee ds
to
b e
at
3 7.
5 degrees Celsi
us.…read more

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Repai
ri
ng cel
ls
*
Movi
ng near
the
sunli
ght
*
Maki
ng mo r
e gl
ucose
*
Maki
ng seeds
*
Maki
ng f
ruit
s
*
Conver
ted i
nto
cel
lul
ose f
or
ma ki
ng
cell
wal
ls
*
Combines
w i
th
nit
rat
es (
fr
om the
soi
l)
t
o make ami
no
aci
ds
w hi
ch
is
conver
ted
to
prot
ein
*
Tur
ns
into
star
ch and
stor
ed…read more

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Nutrients needed for healthy growth:
Bethany Cunningham AQA Biology revision notes (Double and triple award) 21st May 2012…read more

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