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BIOLOGY NOTES Christmas 2011 Mocks




The Nervous System Reflexes
· The sensory organs detect stimuli, your · Help prevent injury, and are automatic responses to
sensory organs are your nose, ears, eyes, certain stimuli e.g. a bright light will cause your pupils
skin and tongue to automatically dilate
· A…

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BIOLOGY NOTES! PAGE 2


The Menstrual Cycle
· Stage 1 - day 1, the uterus lining breaks down
· Stage 2 - days 4 - 14 the uterus lining builds back up
· Stage 3 - day 14 a developed egg is released from the ovary
· Stage 4 -…

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BIOLOGY NOTES! PAGE 3

· The balance between sweat and urine depends on the activities you are doing on the day for example on a cold day
when you are not exercising you don't sweat much and produce more urine (paler as diluted)
· However on a hot day when…

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BIOLOGY NOTES! PAGE 4

· Another risk factor of heart disease is hypertension or high blood pressure
· Eating too much salt may cause high blood pressure for about 30% of the British population

Drugs
· Many are derived from natural substances found in plants
· Some chemical changes due…

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BIOLOGY NOTES! PAGE 5

· Produce Antibodies, every invading cell has unique molecules called
antigens on its surface, when white blood cells come across foreign antigen
they will produce proteins call antibodies to find and kill the invading cells.
These antibodies are specific and lock onto only that molecule. Antibodies…

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BIOLOGY NOTES! PAGE 6

· Plants compete for light, water, nutrients
· Animals compete for space or territory, food, water and mates
· Infectious diseases can wipe out species or control the number of organisms in an area
· Predation, some species will not increase in population due to the…

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BIOLOGY NOTES! PAGE 7

· We can now add, remove or change an organisms genes and alter its characteristics
· The basic idea involves moving more useful genes from one organisms chromosomes into another
· A modern day example is when we use restricting enzymes to take the insulin gene…

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BIOLOGY NOTES! PAGE 8

· Human activity produces load of carbon dioxide, we do this by simply breathing, and by burning fossil fuels for
energy and using machinery. By cutting down loads of trees we also reduce the amount of carbon dioxide taken out
of the atmosphere during photosynthesis. Finally…

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BIOLOGY NOTES! PAGE 9

· Red blood cells, they are adapted to carry as much oxygen as possible, they have a concave surface area to absorb
as much oxygen as possible and also pass through capillaries easily
· They are packed with hemoglobin so that they can absorb more oxygen,…

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BIOLOGY NOTES! PAGE 10

Rate of Photosynthesis

50




37.5




25




12.5




0

Light intensity / % CO2 level


Rate of Photosynthesis
100




75




50




25




0
45 degrees
Temperature

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