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11.1 ­ Body's Response To Change
Nervous System
CNS (Central Nervous System) ­ Brain and spinal cord. Its function is to
receive information from all parts of the body, interpret it and send messages
to other parts of the body telling it what to do.
Neurones (Nerve Cells) ­ Carry…

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Receptors ­ Groups of specialised cells, which detect changes in the
environment (stimuli) and then turn them into electrical impulses. They are
often located in the sense organs.

Sense Organ Receptors Sensitive To...
Skin Touch, Pressure, Pain and Temperature
Eyes Light
Tongue Chemicals in food
Nose Chemicals in the air…

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Gland Hormone Effect

Adrenal Gland Adrenalin Prepares body for action - 'fight or flight'.
Ovary Oestrogen Controls puberty and the menstrual cycle in females;
stimulates production of LH and suppresses the
production of FSH in the pituitary gland.
Ovary Progesterone Maintains the lining of the womb - suppresses FSH

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There are three main hormones involved with the menstrual cycle:

1) FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone):

1) Produced by the pituitary gland
2) Causes an egg to mature in one of the ovaries
3) Stimulates the ovaries to produce oestrogen
2) Oestrogen:
1) Produced by the ovaries
2) Causes pituitary gland…

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Some women have difficulty becoming pregnant because they don't produce
enough FSH to allow their eggs to mature. 'Fertility drugs' contain FSH, which
stimulates eggs to mature in the ovary.
Advantages Disadvantages

1) Helps a lot of women get 1) It doesn't always work ­ some woman may have to…

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The kidneys will remove the excess from the blood ­ this is then got rid of
in urine.
Water Content
Water is taken into the body as food and drink and lost from the body in
these ways:
1. through the skin as sweat
2. via the lungs in breath…

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11.2 ­ Healthy Body
Food Group What It's Used For Found In ...
Carbohydrate Energy Bread, pasta, rice and vegetables
Protein Building and repairing cells Meat, fish, beans and pulses
Fat Energy and for cell membranes Dairy product, oils and sweets
Fibre Adds bulk to food to help digestion Fruit,…

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Fat Rubbing it on paper If when held to the light, paper goes transparent

Metabolic Rate ­ Speed at which chemical reactions take place in the body.
Reasons for variation include:
gender - male or female
the proportion of muscle to fat in the body
the amount of exercise…

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11.3 ­ Drug Abuse
Drug Testing
Placebo ­ A drug that looks identical to the real medicine, but has no medical
Blind Trial ­ Volunteers do not know whether they have the new drug or a
placebo. This eliminates psychological factors to help provide a fair
Double Blind…

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Recreational Drugs
Can be legal (e.g. caffeine or tobacco) or illegal (e.g. cocaine)
Illegal drugs are separated into 2 main classes: soft and hard
Reasons for taking recreational drugs are:
Enjoyment, relaxation or stress relief
To get stoned
For inspiration
Medical Drugs
Interfere with your body's chemical reactions for the…


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