Textiles GCSE (Full revision guide)

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Textiles ­ Technical Design
Fibres
Performance Characteristics
1. What fibre is used to make it
2. How fibres have been made into a yarn
3. How the yarn has been made into a fabric
4. Any other special finishes applied to the yarn
Natural fibres
Synthetic fibres (developed in 30s and 40s)
Regenerate fibres ­ start from natural substances then treated with chemicals
Natural Fibres
Natural fibres are fibres made from plants and animals
Environmental friendly
Renewable resources
Cotton fibre
Short, staple fibres
Made from cellulose
Come from cotton plant
Flax or linen fibre
They come from stem of flax plant
Longer than cotton fibres
Made from cellulose
Wool
Animal hair, usually from sheep
Staple fibre ­ better quality fabric
Warm
Scaly on surface ­ traps air making them warm to wear
Not treated carefully they become tangled and hard and can shrink
Silk
Come from cocoon from a silk warm
Cocoons dropped in boiling water ­ breaks glue
Makes a long silk fibre ­ filament fibre
Made from protein
They have to kill the caterpillar ­ because the caterpillar eats its way out of the cocoon so breaks the fibre
Regenerated Fibres
Made from natural starting points like wood pulp or linters (short cotton fibres) ­provide cellulose
Treated with chemicals to produce thick sticky substance
Forced through spinneret ­ this has a series of holes in it­ the fibres are passed through a chemical bath to
solidify or is left to dry in air
Examples are: VISCOSE, ACETATE, TRI-ACETATE, MODAL, LYOCELL

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Viscose
More commonly used
Made from pine, beach and eucalyptus wood pulp
Passed through the spinneret and solidified in a chemical bath
The fibres cut into staple lengths before being spun into a yarn
Behaves and feels like cotton
Synthetic Fibres
Purely made from chemicals from the coal and oil industry
Non ­ renewable, non- biodegradable ­ not eco ­ friendly
During manufacture can adapt to different qualities for the fibre that is needed ­ this makes them very useful
Polyester Fibres
Most widely used…read more

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Spin clockwise Z twist
Anti ­ Clockwise is S twist
o They reflect light different to give different effects
Worsted system
o Uses long fibres
o combed in parallel
o produces hardwearing and smooth yarn
o Has a sheen to it
o Light weight
o Tighter twist
o Fine smooth Yarn
Woollen system
o Used for any fibre ­ fibres can be short
o They will lie roughly in parallel not combed
o Course and hairy yarn ­ not as shiny
o Bulky and uneven…read more

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Plain Weave
Even surface and looks the same on both sides ­ smooth
Cheap to produce
Easy to print on
Twill Weave
Diagonal lines `wales' are visible on the surface of this fabric
Hard ­wearing ­ more expensive
Front and back look different
Shows less dirt
E.g.…read more

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As they have texture they can be ornamental
They can be difficult to work with ­ depending which way round they are ­ colours can look different
Air get trapped inside the pile ­ so are warm
In towelling the loops increase surface area so are more absorbent
The thicker the ground fabric and the pile the better the quality ­ ground fabric knitted or woven
A cheaper way to make them can be to push tufts of yarn into ground fabric ­ not woven…read more

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Not stretchy and not strong
Needle felts
Can be made from any fibre and the web is formed and repeatedly pierced with hot, sharp barbed needles
The Barbs on the needles drag fibres through the web, stitching it together
If the fibres are synthetic they slightly melt and form together
They are lightweight and slightly more stretch
Used for wadding, upholstery, floor and mattress coverers and filters and dusters
Bonded webs
A binder or bonding agent can be added to the fibres ­ glues the…read more

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Dresses, T-Shirt etc,
rollers the apply embossed on them
pressure to the
fabric to smooth it.…read more

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PROBAN is an example
Hygienic
They prevent growth of microbes
Anti-microbial chemicals such as triclosan are applied to the surface and incorporated into the fabric itself
Control odours, skin irritation, infection ­ prolong life of fabrics
o Used for medical gear, socks, sportswear etc.
Rot Proofing
This finish protects the fabric from organisms that destroy natural fibres
Often applied to technical textiles e.g.…read more

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Continuous dyeing
Flat fabric is passed through a roller in a small dye bath
Two rubber coated rollers above the dye bath
Roller squeeze the fabric and ensure even distribution of the dye before the colour is fixed
Discharge Printing
Starts with plain dyed fabric
Discharge paste then applied to the remove colour ­ applies pattern
Resist Printing
Resist paste to prevent dye to get to certain areas
Pattern created
Transfer Printing
Transfer printing paper ­ reversed design on it ­ iron on
Transfer inks:…read more

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Neoprene (M) Synthetic rubber fabric Wetsuits, hoods, boots and gloves,
orthopaedic braces
Elastane Fibres (M) Tear resistant, durable and ease of care Sportswear, underwear, swimwear
and mixed with yarns or fibres of
other fabrics in jeans etc.…read more

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