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Textiles ­ Technical Design
Fibres
Performance Characteristics
1. What fibre is used to make it
2. How fibres have been made into a yarn
3. How the yarn has been made into a fabric
4. Any other special finishes applied to the yarn
Natural fibres
Synthetic fibres (developed in 30s…

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Viscose
More commonly used
Made from pine, beach and eucalyptus wood pulp
Passed through the spinneret and solidified in a chemical bath
The fibres cut into staple lengths before being spun into a yarn
Behaves and feels like cotton

Synthetic Fibres
Purely made from chemicals from the coal and oil…

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Spin clockwise Z twist
Anti ­ Clockwise is S twist
o They reflect light different to give different effects
Worsted system
o Uses long fibres
o combed in parallel
o produces hardwearing and smooth yarn
o Has a sheen to it
o Light weight
o Tighter twist
o Fine smooth…

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Plain Weave
Even surface and looks the same on both sides ­ smooth
Cheap to produce
Easy to print on




Twill Weave
Diagonal lines `wales' are visible on the surface of this fabric
Hard ­wearing ­ more expensive
Front and back look different
Shows less dirt
E.g. denim, drill, gabardine…

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As they have texture they can be ornamental
They can be difficult to work with ­ depending which way round they are ­ colours can look different
Air get trapped inside the pile ­ so are warm
In towelling the loops increase surface area so are more absorbent
The thicker…

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Not stretchy and not strong

Needle felts
Can be made from any fibre and the web is formed and repeatedly pierced with hot, sharp barbed needles
The Barbs on the needles drag fibres through the web, stitching it together
If the fibres are synthetic they slightly melt and form together…

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through a series of can create a pattern Dresses, T-Shirt etc,
rollers the apply embossed on them
pressure to the
fabric to smooth it.
Different affects can
be made to make a
`watermark' ­ when
the rollers have a
pattern on them
Shrinking Pre ­shrink fabrics ­ Makes sure that…

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o PROBAN is an example

Hygienic
They prevent growth of microbes
Anti-microbial chemicals such as triclosan are applied to the surface and incorporated into the fabric itself
Control odours, skin irritation, infection ­ prolong life of fabrics
o Used for medical gear, socks, sportswear etc.

Rot Proofing
This finish protects…

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Continuous dyeing
Flat fabric is passed through a roller in a small dye bath
Two rubber coated rollers above the dye bath
Roller squeeze the fabric and ensure even distribution of the dye before the colour is fixed

Discharge Printing
Starts with plain dyed fabric
Discharge paste then applied to…

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hats many uniforms for airline pilots
to tank drivers
Neoprene (M) Synthetic rubber fabric Wetsuits, hoods, boots and gloves,
orthopaedic braces
Elastane Fibres (M) Tear resistant, durable and ease of care Sportswear, underwear, swimwear
and mixed with yarns or fibres of
other fabrics in jeans etc. to make
them stretchy…

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