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P5a ­ Satellites, Gravity and Circular Motion
A satellite is an object that orbits another object in space because of the force of

Uses of Artificial Satellites
Monitoring weather or climate.
Communications e.g. Phone and TV.
Space Research, Hubble Telescope.
Navigation e.g. GPS.

Geostationary Orbit Satellites
1) In…

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Gravitational Force
A universal force between masses and varies with distance
The bigger the mass the bigger the gravity (force)
The further apart the objects the smaller the force

Orbital Period varies with height
The higher the satellite is above Earth the slower the orbital period is because there is…

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P5b ­ Vectors and Equations of Motion
Speed is a measure of how fast an object is moving. Velocity is speed in a given

Scalar Quantities
Scalar Quantities only have magnitude (size).
Examples: distance, speed, energy, mass and time.

Vector Quantities
Vectors are quantities that have magnitude and a…

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P5c ­ Projectile Motion
A projectile is something that is thrown or fired the path it takes is the trajectory. On
Earth due to the gravitational field if the projectile is horizontal the object will always
follow a parabolic trajectory unless it has a jetpack!

Example: Calculating Projectile using the…

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A= 10m/s

T= ?

If we ignore air resistance the projectile has...
Horizontally Vertically
No force Gravitational
No force downwards
acceleration Acceleration
Constant downwards
velocity Increasing

Projectiles have a downward acceleration that only affects the vertical
Projectiles have no acceleration in the horizontal direction.

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On earth the acceleration is always 10m/s downwards. The initial velocity is
nearly always 0.

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P5d ­ Momentum
Every action has a equal and opposite reaction. The formula for momentum is:
Momentum = Mass x Velocity

Conservation of Momentum
The momentum before a collision is always equal to the momentum afterwards. It relies on
the fact that momentum is a vector and has direction as…

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Crumple Zones are designed to fold in a collision increasing the time taken to stop so
therefore reducing the force on the passenger.

Injuries in a sports accident and those caused by car accidents are caused by a
very rapid acceleration of parts of the body.

Force and Momentum

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P5e ­ Satellite Communication
Radio waves are reflected off of the ionosphere and microwaves are be transmitted
to orbiting satellites.

Why are radio waves better for broadcasting
Radio waves have a large wavelength so they are diffracted around hills and over the horizon,
so they a spread out over a…


Sanah Iqbal


Thank you so much. Hopefully these should help!

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