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Further Biology
Exchange of materials
Active transport
Substances are sometimes absorbed against a concentration gradient by active transport.
Active transport uses energy from respiration.
Cells can absorb ions from very dilute solutions and move molecules through cell membranes
using active transport.

Exchange of gases in the lungs
Your breathing system…

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Exchange of materials in other organisms
Whatever the organism, gas and solute exchange depends on a large surface area, moist
surfaces, short diffusion distances and a large concentration gradient.
This is shown in the two examples taught:
o Gas exchange in a fish,
o Gas exchange in an insect.


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Transporting substances around the body
The circulatory system
The body transport system consists off the blood vessels, the heart and the blood.
The three main type of blood vessels are:
o Arteries,
o Veins,
o Capillaries.

Blood Vessels Distinctive features
They have thick walls and a thick layer of…

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Human beings have a double circulation.
The heart works as a pump, moving blood around the body.

Transport in the blood
Your blood is the main transport medium of your body.
Your blood plasma transport dissolved food molecules, minerals, carbon dioxide and urea.
Your red blood cells are adapted to…

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Anaerobic respiration
If muscles work hard for a long time they become fatigued and don't contract properly. If
they don't get enough oxygen they will respire anaerobically.
Anaerobic respiration is respiration without oxygen. Glucose is broken down to form lactic
acid, water and a small amount of energy.
After exercise,…

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Kidney transplants
In a kidney transplant diseased or damaged kidneys are replaced with a healthy kidney from
a donor.
The donor kidney may be rejected by the recipient's immune system. To try and prevent
rejection the tissue types of the donor and the recipient are matched as closely as possible…

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Food production using bacteria
Bacteria are used in making both yoghurt and chees.
In the production of yoghurt a started culture of bacteria acts on warm milk. Lactose is
converted to lactic acid in a lactic fermentation reaction. This changes the texture and taste
of the milk to make yoghurt.…

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Ethanol based fuels can be produced by the anaerobic fermentation of sugar cane juices and
from glucose derived from maize starch by the action of the enzyme carbohydrase.
Ethanol is distilled from the fermentation products and can be used as a fuel in motor vehicles
on its own or mixed…


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