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REVISION NOTES: BIOLOGY 3
MICROBIOLOGY



Growing Microbes

The study of microorganisms is called microbiology. These include bacteria, viruses and fungi, all
too small to be seen by the naked eye. Many microorganisms can be grown in a lab, where we can
research them and find out what they need to…

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REVISION NOTES: BIOLOGY 3
MICROBIOLOGY



baked due to the high temperatures, giving the bread its light, wafery texture. All yeast cells are
killed by the heat in the cooking process.

We can make beers and wines using yeast. Making beer relies on the process of malting, where
barley grains are…

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REVISION NOTES: BIOLOGY 3
MICROBIOLOGY






Mass Production of Microbes

We need microbes in large quantities for production of drugs, like antibiotics, and food. To grow
microbes on an industrial scale, large vessels called fermenters are used. These have been
developed to prevent occurrences which stop bacterial growth. They react to…

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REVISION NOTES: BIOLOGY 3
MICROBIOLOGY








Antibiotic Production

In 1928, Alexander Fleming left some bacteria culture he had been growing on some plates near
an open window. When he returned to look at them, microbes had grown, but there were patches
of mould surrounding the agar and bacteria had stopped growing…

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REVISION NOTES: BIOLOGY 3
MICROBIOLOGY






Biogas

A flammable mixture of gases, known as biogas, forms when bacteria break down the waste
material of dead animals or plants in anaerobic conditions. The main component is methane,
although the contents varies. The methane content tends to be around 50 to 80 per…

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REVISION NOTES: BIOLOGY 3
MICROBIOLOGY



be extracted by distillation and used as a car fuel. Many cars run on a mixture of petrol and
ethanol, which can prove cheaper than fully petrol.

Ethanol is an ideal fuel in the sense than it does not produce toxic gases when burned it…

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