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Cells
All animals and plants are made of cells. Animal cells
and plant cells have features in common, such as
nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria and
ribosomes. Plant cells also have a cells wall, and they
often also have chloroplasts and a permanent
vacuole. Cells may be specialised to carry out a
particular function.
Dissolved substances pass into and out of cells by
diffusion. Water passes into and out of cells by
osmosis.…read more

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Animal cells and plant cells
Animal cells and plant cells have these parts in common:
function
part
nucleus contains genetic material, which controls the activities of the cell
cytoplasm most chemical processes take place here, controlled by enzymes
cell membrane controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell
mitochondria most energy is released by respiration here
ribosomes protein synthesis happens here
Plant cells also have extra parts:
function
part
cell wall strengthens the cell
contain chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy for
chloroplasts
photosynthesis
permanent vacuole filled with cell sap to help keep the cell turgid…read more

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Make sure you can label diagrams of animal and plant cells, like
these:…read more

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Specialised cells
Cells may be specialised for a particular function. Their structure will allow
them to carry out their function well. Here are some examples.
You are likely to be given information, perhaps in a
diagram, to help you explain the adaptations of a
particular cell type to its function.…read more

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function Adaptation
cell
Packed with chloroplasts. Regular shaped,
Absorbs light energy for
leaf cell closely packed cells form a continuous
photosynthesis.
layer for efficient absorption of sunlight.
Absorbs water and
root Long 'finger-like' process with very thin wall,
mineral ions from the
hair cell which gives a large surface area.
soil.
The head contains genetic information and
an enzyme to help penetrate the egg cell
sperm Fertilises an egg cell
membrane. The middle section is packed
cell (female gamete).
with mitochondria for energy. The tail
moves the sperm to the egg.
Thin outer membrane to let oxygen diffuse
red Contain haemoglobin to through easily. Shape increases the surface
blood carry oxygen to the area to allow more oxygen to be absorbed
cells cells. efficiently. No nucleus, so the whole cell is
full of haemoglobin.…read more

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