From Kaiser to Fuhrer [Second Reich] 1900-1914

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History revision
The Second Reich
1900 ­ 1914
Economy...
By 1914 Germany had become the economic power house of Europe.
E.g. in 1871 produced 38,000 tonnes of coal in comparison to Britain
producing 120,000. However by 1914 Germany producing 280,000 to Britain's
290,000 tonnes.
... in 1870 they were producing steel at a rate of 160 metric tonnes to Britain's
286, by 1910 producing 14,000 in comparison to Britain's 6,000
-->(amount of steel produced is direct link to do well in an industrialised
war)
Short term reasons for economic growth...
1) Education They were recognised to have a superior education over most
of Europe, with student numbers in universities rising from 4,000 to
118,000 in 1912
o E.g. each technological university had more students in them
than all of Britain's combined
Result was a steady flow of highly qualified men who would `turn inventions
into products'
2) German Banks had huge infrastructure, they were prepared to hand out
large loans, which allowed the companies to plan for the long term.
o links grew between companies creating trust and co-operation
with a positive climate through investment.
o E.g. the Deutsche Bank with electrical giant AEG
3) Tariffs. At this point there was no income tax.
o 1879 tariff law made possible to tax any good coming into
Germany ­ highly
Resulted in protecting German markets by reducing
competition from abroad
Kept prices higher than would have been, workers
suffered
o 1902 tariff law compromise from 1892 level but not to such a
high extent
Was in order to win hearts and minds of the working class
, but wasn't as high as conservatives and Junkers had
wanted
High enough to see a rise in food prices for the poor, so
SPD votes rose significantly and conservatives declined

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Cartels ­ stopped the free market, good for businesses giving stability to
industry, fixing levels of production and prices
o But meant once fired unlikely to get another job in same area
o E.g. Siemens and AEG ­ 1906
o E.g. Thyssen and Krupp ­ 1893
5) Agriculture ­ the tariff law in 1879 was to protect farmers.
o The Junkers benefited from the high prices of their rye
o Increased yield due to improvements in chemicals, and industrial
production helped mechanise farms. E.g.…read more

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Huge growth in the SPD.
o started largely in 1890's when like the trade unions their ban was
stopped
o the growth of this party (largest party 1912) shows possible discontent
of the people
o workers formed the largest section in the populace
Rise in pressure groups highlighted the tensions and divisions in Germany.
Considerably based around right because workers had neither time nor money.
o E.g.…read more

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Reichstag they were only able to debate
about them rather than start their own - Monarch was not required to justify
- Govt ministers meant to be answerable actions, however, this does change later
to parliament, but they were appointed on when criticised within parliament
by Kaiser and not parliament
The Kaiser Reich was not an absolute monarchy as he had to work within the
constitutional framework created in 1871.…read more

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Daily Telegraph interview, calling the British `mad marching hares' but
also making an impression he wanted a close alliance with them.…read more

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Spoke about the Russians coming to attack ­ they were so strong they
now needed to be repressed. Was in order to go to a defensive war
German society was boosted on societal militarism through Kaisers love of
ceremonials
o The navy and army knew best for Germany ­ ranked so high
E.G. captain Kopenick stone a Prussian guard's uniform and
demanded money from the treasury saying it was order
from Kaiser ­ through UNIFORM he was given money.…read more

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The appointment of Bethmann-Hollweg as chancellor exemplified the authority of the
Kaiser. This was due to Hollweg's strengths were not in foreign policy, leaving the
Kaiser to `take the initiative'
NATIONALISM ­ Kaiser was a racist he hated the new groups of people ­ Poles
Catholics for example, calling them `unpatriotic fellows' and `bandits, not deserving
the home of Germans'.…read more

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Anti-Semites
Led to the Zentrum and SPD to lose seats (intention)
MOLTKE, German chief of Military Staff
Was it him that wanted war?
It was him that urged the Austrians to announce the general mobilisation against
Russia and support in a European war
Moltke replied to Conrad Hotzendoff of Austria with the approval of the Kaiser and
Bulow in 1909 that "the moment Russia mobilises, Germany will also mobilise"
o Also wrote to Conrad stating that "... a European war must come sooner or
later...…read more

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However, previously had wanted the widening of Kiel Canal in order for the
battleships to fit through
Wanted to avoid war in July 1914 ­ had `Anglophobia'
Schlock "Tirpitz kept discouraging war"…read more

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