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History revision
The Second Reich
1900 ­ 1914

By 1914 Germany had become the economic power house of Europe.
E.g. in 1871 produced 38,000 tonnes of coal in comparison to Britain
producing 120,000. However by 1914 Germany producing 280,000 to Britain's
290,000 tonnes.
... in 1870 they were producing…

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4) Cartels ­ stopped the free market, good for businesses giving stability to
industry, fixing levels of production and prices
o But meant once fired unlikely to get another job in same area
o E.g. Siemens and AEG ­ 1906
o E.g. Thyssen and Krupp ­ 1893
5) Agriculture ­…

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Huge growth in the SPD.
o started largely in 1890's when like the trade unions their ban was
o the growth of this party (largest party 1912) shows possible discontent
of the people
o workers formed the largest section in the populace
Rise in pressure groups highlighted the tensions…

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Reichstag they were only able to debate
about them rather than start their own - Monarch was not required to justify
- Govt ministers meant to be answerable actions, however, this does change later
to parliament, but they were appointed on when criticised within parliament
by Kaiser and not parliament…

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1908 Daily Telegraph interview, calling the British `mad marching hares' but
also making an impression he wanted a close alliance with them.
o Reichstag objected to Kaiser making foreign policy without consulting
o Bulow's chancellorship came to end, having been blamed by the Kaiser ­
did not have the…

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o Spoke about the Russians coming to attack ­ they were so strong they
now needed to be repressed. Was in order to go to a defensive war
German society was boosted on societal militarism through Kaisers love of
o The navy and army knew best for Germany ­…

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The appointment of Bethmann-Hollweg as chancellor exemplified the authority of the
Kaiser. This was due to Hollweg's strengths were not in foreign policy, leaving the
Kaiser to `take the initiative'

NATIONALISM ­ Kaiser was a racist he hated the new groups of people ­ Poles
Catholics for example, calling them…

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this, with the aim to increase the Navy. 2 navy laws passed in 1890 and 1902
resulting in increased ship number
Weltpolitik started in 1890, but through Bulow led to build-up of armed forces
(and navy)
o For example the Naval plan which was to see creation of 38 battleships…

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Led to the Zentrum and SPD to lose seats (intention)

MOLTKE, German chief of Military Staff

Was it him that wanted war?

It was him that urged the Austrians to announce the general mobilisation against
Russia and support in a European war
Moltke replied to Conrad Hotzendoff of Austria…

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However, previously had wanted the widening of Kiel Canal in order for the
battleships to fit through
Wanted to avoid war in July 1914 ­ had `Anglophobia'
Schlock "Tirpitz kept discouraging war"


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