Second Reich

Where power lay and social + political problems in the 2nd Reich. 

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  • Second Reich
    • Power/structure in the Second Reich 1900-1914
      • Kaiser
        • "There is only one ruler in the Reich and I am he"
        • Erratic + unbalanced character.
        • Extensive powers under the constitution = appoint + dismiss chancellors + state secretaries
        • Limited grasp of politics, preferred social and ceremonial duites
          • Erratic + unbalanced character.
          • Extensive powers under the constitution = appoint + dismiss chancellors + state secretaries
        • John Rohl
          • argues: system of gov = based on imperial court + 'personal rule' of the Kaiser
      • Elites
        • Structuralist view emerged in 1970s --> rejected idea that Wilhelm II = chief influence.
          • Hans Wehler
        • Power vacuum developed after 1890
        • Forces exerted influence over nation
          • Officers in the army
          • Diplomats
          • Judiciary
          • High-ranking civil servants
          • Prussia's landowning and aristocratic Junkers
          • Sought alliance = keep power = 'Sammlungspolitick'
            • New elites
              • Bankers
              • Industrialists
              • Buisnesses
        • Ignored middle class views
      • Mass Political movements
        • Trade Unions
        • David Blackbourn
          • 'history from below'
        • Non-Prussian regions
        • Catholic church
        • Agrarian pressure groups
        • Mittelstand
        • Shift emphasis = Germany many regions + cultures + political views
          • Diversity + growth of political activity = political leaders had to respond to public opinion
    • Social + political problems in1900-1918
      • Social
        • Urbanisation = mass migration (UMM)
          • 1971 = 36.1%     1910 = 60%
          • Lack of housing
          • Outbreak of disease
          • Gov response = improved medical practices + new sewerage systems
            • 1913: 400,000 strikers
            • 1900-1914: 1 in 3 workers = underemployed
            • Lack of accommodation = still a problem
            • Food production = down
            • 1/2 million foreign nationals working for G = eve of WW1
        • Nationalism
          • Lebensraum
          • Pan German League
        • Anti-Semitism
        • Social Darwinism
        • Reforms
          • 1900: accident insurance
      • Political
        • Foreign Policy under Bismark = 'Realpolitik' = subtle diplomacy
        • Weltpolitik "world policy"
          • Adopted in 1890
          • Bulow 1897: "we demand our own place in the sun"
        • Bulow's policies = military happy + national pride
        • Tensions over WP
          • 1904: German South West Africa Revolt
            • 1911: population fell: 80,000 to 15,000
        • 1907 'Hottentot' elections
          • Criticism to Gov --> African  policies
          • SPD/Centre alliance = to stop colonial development
        • 1906 SPD + Centre Party vote against Gov's colonial plans
        • Naval expansion
  • Social + political problems in1900-1918
    • Social
      • Urbanisation = mass migration (UMM)
        • 1971 = 36.1%     1910 = 60%
        • Lack of housing
        • Outbreak of disease
        • Gov response = improved medical practices + new sewerage systems
          • 1913: 400,000 strikers
          • 1900-1914: 1 in 3 workers = underemployed
          • Lack of accommodation = still a problem
          • Food production = down
          • 1/2 million foreign nationals working for G = eve of WW1
      • Nationalism
        • Lebensraum
        • Pan German League
      • Anti-Semitism
      • Social Darwinism
      • Reforms
        • 1900: accident insurance
    • Political
      • Foreign Policy under Bismark = 'Realpolitik' = subtle diplomacy
      • Weltpolitik "world policy"
        • Adopted in 1890
        • Bulow 1897: "we demand our own place in the sun"
      • Bulow's policies = military happy + national pride
      • Tensions over WP
        • 1904: German South West Africa Revolt
          • 1911: population fell: 80,000 to 15,000
      • 1907 'Hottentot' elections
        • Criticism to Gov --> African  policies
        • SPD/Centre alliance = to stop colonial development
      • 1906 SPD + Centre Party vote against Gov's colonial plans
      • Naval expansion
  • Development of Bulow Bloc
    • Conservatives
  • National Liberals
    • Development of Bulow Bloc
      • Conservatives
  • Anti-semites
    • Progressives
      • 1911: Imperial insurance code

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